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pht 100

chapter 8 part 1

QuestionAnswer
time space &/or expertise in compounding is ng lacking in most pharm] chains
compounding is specializing in a growing number of independant pharm]s
compounding is preparing meds from bulk ingredients to treat specific conditions
compounding can be sterile or nonsterile
injectable meds are prepared through compounding
compounding is mostly done in hospitals
sterile compounding in pharm]s is preparing injectable meds
nonsterile compounding is preparing meds in a specific quantity/form from pharmaceutical ingredients for rx's in oral & topical routes
extemporaneous compounding is sometimes thought of as nonsterile
nonsterile compounds are solutions, suspensions, topicals, suppositories, & capsules
patient individualized rx's are preferred by dermatologists, gynocologists, dentists, & veteranarians
compounds are needed when smaller dose meds are commercially not produced/available or dosage form of med can't be taken by a specified route
in solutions, the solute (active ingredient) dissolves in a water or alcohol based solvent
suspensions settle but the suspending agents prevent settling, nonetheless all suspensions must be shaken well
ointments are occlusive, greesy, & not washable because they are water in oil emulsions
creams are not as greesy, nonocclusive, & washable because they are oil in water emulsions
powder is a drug &/or chemical that is a finely admixture
powder can be (#8) course or (#80) fine
powdered meds are rare
suppositories are rectal, vaginal, & urethral and have cocoa butter, hydrogenated vegetable oil, & glycerinated gelatin
suppositories are made by melting base material, adding active ingredients, poured into a mold, & chilled
capsules are solid dosage forms with medicine in gelatin shells that are made from gelatin, sugar, & water
commercial synthetic hormones come in fixed doses
bio-identical hormones can be compounded for meeting the individual's needs
dosing can be based on clinical observations or lab analysis of serum or saliva
hrt can be compounded into creams and gels
compounding pharm]s have to have a license
in many areas of practice, good compounding practices include usp standards to ensure high-quality compound preps
anticipatory compounding includes preparing other products (other than rx) in reasonable amounts & giving them lot number labels
usp chapter 795 includes that the u.s. pharmacopeia develop standards for nonsterile compounding
the u.s. pharmacopeia standards protect pharmacists from lawsuits & enhances patient safety
the fda elects to use and enforce usp standards
manufacturered products are products prepared off-site be a manufacturer
the usp chpt. 795 has policies & procedures for quality control (quality of ingredient sources), verification, & patient counseling
quality control includes personnel training, keeping finished product stability & consistancy, prevents errors, and documents expiration dates
in the usp chpt. 795, only the usp or nat'l formulary grade ingredients should be used
pharmacists measure ingredient costs and the quality
in case of backorders, recalls, or shortages; pharmacists must have multiple sources for quality ingredients
Created by: wildap