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Honors ChemExamVocab

Vocab for Exam

QuestionAnswer
Analytical Chem Focuses on the composition of matter
Bio Chem Study of the processes that take place in living organisms
Inorganic Chem Study of all the chemicals containing C
Physical Chem deals w/ the mechanism, rate, and energy transfer that occurs when matter undergoes a change
Theoretical Chem use of math and computers to understand observed behavior in order to predict properties of new compounds
Basic/Pure Chem/Research pursuit of knowledge
Applied Chem/Research W/ a goal in mind
Technological development allows things to be done quicker w/ less effort. Serves needs and desires of society
Mass measure of the amount of matter
Matter has mass and takes up space
Atom smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical identity of that element
Element Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler, stable substances, and is made up of one type of atom
Compounded substance that can be broken down into simple stable substances
Extensive Property depend on the amount of matter that is present
Intensive Do not depend on the amount of matter present
Physical Change change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
Chemical Change Change in which 1 or more substances are converted into diff substances
Physical Property characteristic that can be observed or measured w/o changing the identity of the substance
Chem Property relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that transform it to diff substances
Reactant substances that react in a chem change
Product substances formed by a chem change
Accuracy closeness to the "correct" or "Accepted" value
Precision repeatability; ability to repeat the result when measured in the same way
Percent error calculated by subtracting the accepted value then multiplied by 100
Law of the conservation of mass matter can't be created or destroyed by chemical reactions
Law of Definite Proportions Chem Compound contains the same element in exactly the same proportion by mass regardless of the size of the sample or the source of the compound
Law of Multiple Proportions if 2 or more different compounds are composed of the same two elements then the ratio of the masses of the 3nd element combined with a certain mass of the 1st element is always a ratio of small whole #s.
Atomic Number the # of protons each atom of that element
Isotopes atoms of the same element that have different masses
Mass number total # of protons & neutrons that make up the nucleus of an isotope
Average atomic Mass the weighed average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
Mole amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12g of carbon-12
Avogrado's # 6.022x10^23. The # of particles in exactly one mole of a pure substance
Molar Mass mass of one mole of a pure substance
Quantum amount of energy required to move an e- from one energy level to another
Ground State lowest energy level position for an electron
Excited State higher energy level/position for an electron
Heinsenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
Quantum theory describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
Electron Configuration -are the ways in which e- are arranged into various orbitals. -since neutral atoms of diff elements have diff #s of e-, each element has a unique electron configuration
Aufbau Principle electrons occupy orbitals in order of lowest energy to highest energy
Pauli Exclusion Principle n orbital can only hold 2 e- and if an orbital contains 2e- they must have opposite spins
Hund's Rule -put all electrons in 1sublevel, give them their own orbital first and make them go in the same direction
Periodic Law Physical and Chem properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomic #s
Periodic Table an arrangement of the elements in order of their atomic #s so that elements with similar properties fall in the same column/group
lanthanides 14 elements w/ atomic #s from 58-71
actinides 14 elements w/ atomic #s from 90=103
main-group elements p-block and s-block elements
Created by: ArrowForever