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Chem 115 Exam 2

frequency cycles/sec
wavelength length
amplitude height
higher amplitude brighter
lower amplitude dimmer
high energy high frequency
low energy low frequency
values of n>(equal to) 1; spherical s orbitals
n>(equal to) 2 p orbitals
any orbital can hold a max of how many e-? two
lowest energy state ground state
n goes up absorption
n goes down emission
energy difference for electronic transition (h/2pi)(1/n(f)^2-1/n(1)^2)
c(speed of light)= wavelength(frequency)
atomic radii trend increase down; decrease right
energy required to remove and electron ionization energy
ionization energy trend down column decrease; across row increase
change in energy accompanying the addition of an electron to an atom or ion electron affinity
electron affinity trend down column decrease; across row increase
low IE forms cations
high IE forms anions
core takes how much energy to remove a whole lot, especially compared to the outer levels
metallic trends increase down; decrease right
transferring electrons form one element to another ionic compounds
sharing electrons between atoms of different elements covalent compounds
loses one electron; positive ion cation
gains one electron; negative ion anion
cation usually metal
anion usually nonmetal
covalent bonding is between nonmetals
electrons shared among all the atoms in a solid metallic bonding (NOT COVALENT -- that's just between two atoms)
metal plus metal metallic bond
metal plus non metal ionic bond
non metal plus non metal covalent bond
the enthalpy change that accompanies the revers of one mol of ionic solid separating into gaseous ions lattive energy
do ionic or covalent compounds conduct electricity ionic
electron transfer is a _________ process endothermic
requires energy exothermic
lattice energy trend decrease down; increase right
distance between nuclei at which potential energy is the lowest bond length
requires energy bond breaking
KJ to break bond and bond length equilibrium
electronegativity trend increase right; decrease down
have the same relative placement of atoms bt different locations of bonding and lone electron pairs resonance structures
formal charge # valence electrons - (unshared valence +1/2 shared electrons)
in resonance structures does the bond move or the atom bond
if you can write two or more valid lewis structures, the actual electron distribution is... an average of the distributions shown
VSEPR Valence shell electron pair repulsion
Principle of VSEPR Valence shell elctron unis around a central atom will arrange themselves so that they are as far from each other as possible
two electron units (shape and degree) linear 180
three electron units no lone pairs trigonal planar 120
three electron units one lone pair bent <120
four electron units no lone pairs tetrahedral 109.5
four electron units one lone pair trigonal pyramidal <109.5
four electron units two lone pairs bent <109.5
central atom and five bonding groups trigonal bipyramidal
central atom and six bonding groups octahedral
double bonds effect bond angles similar to lone pairs
an inbalance of charges over the whole molecule molecular polarity
same molecular formula and different physical/chemical properties constitutional isomer
polarity: trans vs cis trans=non; cis=polar
dipole moment measure of molecular polarity
when are covalent bonds polar when atoms have different electronegativities and share electrons equally
titration slowly adding an acid to a base until the reaction has reached the equivalence point
using a known amount of one reagent to determine the amount or concentration of another substance is standardization
Molarity moles/liters
q (enthalpy) cm(DeltaT) or specific heat X mass X temp change
q (reaction) - q (solution)= 0
Which will have a higher lattice energy? A smaller compound or larger Smaller - tighter bond
Which will have a higher lattice energy? An ionic compound with more or less ions? More - hold tighter bond
Is combustion endothermic or exothermic? What about formation Combustion: exothermic Formation: endothermic
Are stronger bonds short or long? Short (ex. triple shorter and stronger than double)
What is the purpose of standardizing a solution Determine concentration
Of the following, what radiation has the longest wavelength and what has the greatest energy? gamma; ultraviolet; visible visible: longest wavelength gamma: greatest energy
Why does the atomic radius of main-group elements generally increase down a group? The principle quantum number (n) of the valence orbitals decrease down a group
A double bond has how many pi and how many sigma bonds One of each
Created by: jkmccord11