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PS chapter 12

PS for chapter 12

volume for a solid has a definite volume
volume for a liquid has a definite volume
density and incompressibility fo r a solid usually solid are the most dense phase of matter, usually less compressibile then liquids or gasses
density and incompressibility for a liquid usually more dense than gasses and less dense than solids. less ocmpressible than gases
rate of diffusion for solids very slow
rate of diffusion for liquids faster than solids slower than gasses
surface tension a force that tends to pull adjacent parts of a liquids surface together, thereby decreasing the suraface area to the smallest possible size. Resultsf from the IMFs between particles of a liquid
capillary action the attraction of the surafce of a liquid to the surface of a solid. this process continues until thw weight of the liquid balances the gravitational force
viscosity a measure of resistance of fluids to flow
types of solid crystalline solid and amorphous soid
crydtalline solid consists of crystals. crystals are particles that are arranged in ny orderly, geometric, repeating pattern. e.g. MgCl2
melting point for a crystalline solid is a definite value
amorphous solid particles are arranged randomly E.g. glass, plastic
melting point for an amorphous solid do not have a definite value, but a range
types of liquids include volatile liequids and nonvolatile liquids
volatile liequids are liquids that evaporate readily and have realtively weak intermolecular forces E.g. etherm acetibem ir Br2
nonvolatile liquids are liquids that evaporate slowly and have relatively strong IMFS
equilibrium is a dynamic condition in which two opposing changes occur at equal rates in a closed system
chemical equilibrium a state of balance in which the rate of a forward reaction equals the rate of its reverse reaction and the concentrations of its prodict and reactants remain unchanged
le chatelier's principle when a system at equilibrium is distributed by application of a stress, it attains a new equilibrium position that minimizes the stress
if temperature increases in an endothermic reaction it shifts toward products
if temperature increases in an exothermic reaction it shifts towards reactants
the temperature decreases in an endothermic reaction it shifts toward reactants
decrease in tempearture in an exothermic reaction shifts toward products
endothermic reaction a reaction in which heat energy is absorbed
exothermic reaction a reaction in which heat energy is released
increase in reactant shifts toward products
increase product shift toward reactants
decrease reactant shift toward reactants
decrease product shifts toward products
if the substance is solid or liquid and increase eracant no change will occur
increase pressure will lead to decrease volume and shift toward side with fewer moles of gas
decrease pressure will lead to increase volume and shift toward side and more moles of gas
phase any part of a system that has uniform composition and properties. also known as a state of matter
melting the phsycical cahnge of a soid to a liquid by ther addition fo heat
freezing/fusion.soldification the physil cahgne of a qliuid to a solid by the removal of heat
sublimation a change of state from a solid directly to a gas
deposition the change of state from a gas directly to a solid
condensation the process by whihc particles escape from the surace of a nonboiling liquid and enter a gas phase
boiling conversion of a liquid to a vapor within the liquid as welkl as its surface
vaporization process by which a solid or liquid changes to a gas
molar heat of fusion the amount of heat energy reqyuuierd to melt one mole of solid at its melting point
molar heat of fusion for water 6.009 KF/mol
molar heat of vaporization the amount of heat energy requierd to vaporize one mole of a liquid at its boiling point
mole hjeat of vaporization for wawa 40.79 KJ/mol
heating curve temp v. time, noc ange in temp during a phase change: solid, liquid, gas
cooling curve time v temp, gas liquid solid
phase diagrams a graph of pressure versuss temp that shows the conditions under which the phases of as ubstance exist
triple point the temperatuer and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid and vapor of a substance can coexist at equilibrium
critical point indicates the critical temperatuer and critical pressure of a substance; the point after which a substance must be a gas (can no longer exist as a liquid)
nbp, nmp are at 1 atm
Created by: lilee256