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# Chemistry 120

### Chemistry 120 Test 2 Ellis

Kinetic Molecular Theory #1 The volume of individual particles of a gas can be assumed to be negligible.
Kinetic Molecular Theory #2 The particles are in constant motion, the collision of the particles creates pressure. Particles are elastic.
Kinetic Molecular Theory #3 The particles exert no force on each other. They neither attract nor repel.
Kinetic Molecular Theory #4 The kinetic energy of gas particles is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas. The particles move faster as the temperature rises.
Deviation from Ideal Gas High pressure and low temperature
Van Der Waals's Equation [ P + a (n/V)^2 ](V-nb) = nRT
Van Der Waals's Equation P = [(nRT)/(V-nb)] - a(n/V)^2
Determine Final Volume (Given: V1; T1; & T2) (V1/T1) = (V2/T2) - Charles's Law
Determine Final Moles (Given V1; n1; & V2) (V1/n1) = (V2/n2) - Avogadro's Law
Solving with Density Density(m/V) = [(molar mass)(P)]/RT
Reaction Stoichiometry Solve for MOLES
Gases at Two Conditions [(P1 X V1)/(n1 X T1)] = [(P2 X V2)/(n2 X T2)]
Determining Partial Pressures (double bulb diagram) [(V X P)/Total V] + [(V X P)/Total V]
atm -> torr 1 atm = 760 torr
Using Mole Fraction = Partial Pressure P1/Ptotal = n1/ntotal (n total = 1)
Two Reactant within a Gas Law Problem Reactant Volume -ideal gas law-> moles of reactant - determine limiting reactant -> use limiting reactant to determine moles of product -ideal gas law-> volume of product
Effusion (movement) (Rate1/Rate2) = (Molar Mass2/Molar Mass1)^1/2 ->sq root - higher molar mass = slower rate
R(torr) = R(atm) = 62.36 .0821
Determine Heat Molar Heat Capacity X mol X Change in Temperature
Determine Energy/Heat Specific Heat Capacity X Mass X Change in Temperature
Determine Specific Heat Capacity Heat / (Mass X Change in Temperature)
Specific Heat Capacity The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature one degree of one gram of a substance
Determine Heat with Balanced Equation Multiply Moles of the substance by "Delta Heat"/mole ration
Calorimetry Heat loss = Heat gain
Calorimetry Heat Capacity Heat Absorbed / Increase in Temp
Enthalpies of Formation in a Reactions [Sum of products (moles X enthalpy formation)] - [Sum of reactants (moles X enthalpy formation)]
h - lambda (meters) wavelength
v - nu (sec^-1 or Hz) frequency
Find wavelength or frequency lambda = constant(2.9979*10^8 m/sec) / nu nu = constant(2.9979*10^8 m/sec) / lambda
Quantum Energy Planck's constant (6.626*10^-34Js) X frequency
Energy of a Photon (Planck's constant X Speed of light)/ lambda
Mass of a Photon Planck's constant / (wavelength X speed of light)
Determine Wavelength (given mass) Planck's constant / (mass X velocity)
Quantum Numbers n; l; ml; ms
l numbers 0 = s; 1 = p; 2 = d; 3 = f
Subshells s = 1; p = 3; d = 5, f = 7
Pauli Exclusion Principle In a given atom not two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers
Heisenberg uncertainty principle uncertainty in particle's position X uncertainty in particle's momentum (greater than or equal to) planck's constant / 4pi
n related to size and energy of the orbital
l related to the shape of the orbital
ml related to the position of the orbital in space relative to other orbitals
ms related to the spin of the electron
Electron Affinity Energy change associated with the addition of an electron
Ionization Energy Energy change associated with the removal of an electron
Group 5 Ionization Energy Group 5 is greater then 4 and 6
Created by: amandacharles

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