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# Chemistry 120

### Chemistry 120 Test 2 Ellis

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Kinetic Molecular Theory #1 | The volume of individual particles of a gas can be assumed to be negligible. |

Kinetic Molecular Theory #2 | The particles are in constant motion, the collision of the particles creates pressure. Particles are elastic. |

Kinetic Molecular Theory #3 | The particles exert no force on each other. They neither attract nor repel. |

Kinetic Molecular Theory #4 | The kinetic energy of gas particles is directly proportional to the temperature of the gas. The particles move faster as the temperature rises. |

Deviation from Ideal Gas | High pressure and low temperature |

Van Der Waals's Equation | [ P + a (n/V)^2 ](V-nb) = nRT |

Van Der Waals's Equation | P = [(nRT)/(V-nb)] - a(n/V)^2 |

Determine Final Volume (Given: V1; T1; & T2) | (V1/T1) = (V2/T2) - Charles's Law |

Determine Final Moles (Given V1; n1; & V2) | (V1/n1) = (V2/n2) - Avogadro's Law |

Solving with Density | Density(m/V) = [(molar mass)(P)]/RT |

Reaction Stoichiometry | Solve for MOLES |

Gases at Two Conditions | [(P1 X V1)/(n1 X T1)] = [(P2 X V2)/(n2 X T2)] |

Determining Partial Pressures (double bulb diagram) | [(V X P)/Total V] + [(V X P)/Total V] |

atm -> torr | 1 atm = 760 torr |

Using Mole Fraction = Partial Pressure | P1/Ptotal = n1/ntotal (n total = 1) |

Two Reactant within a Gas Law Problem | Reactant Volume -ideal gas law-> moles of reactant - determine limiting reactant -> use limiting reactant to determine moles of product -ideal gas law-> volume of product |

Effusion (movement) | (Rate1/Rate2) = (Molar Mass2/Molar Mass1)^1/2 ->sq root - higher molar mass = slower rate |

R(torr) = R(atm) = | 62.36 .0821 |

Determine Heat | Molar Heat Capacity X mol X Change in Temperature |

Determine Energy/Heat | Specific Heat Capacity X Mass X Change in Temperature |

Determine Specific Heat Capacity | Heat / (Mass X Change in Temperature) |

Specific Heat Capacity | The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature one degree of one gram of a substance |

Determine Heat with Balanced Equation | Multiply Moles of the substance by "Delta Heat"/mole ration |

Calorimetry | Heat loss = Heat gain |

Calorimetry Heat Capacity | Heat Absorbed / Increase in Temp |

Enthalpies of Formation in a Reactions | [Sum of products (moles X enthalpy formation)] - [Sum of reactants (moles X enthalpy formation)] |

h - lambda (meters) | wavelength |

v - nu (sec^-1 or Hz) | frequency |

Find wavelength or frequency | lambda = constant(2.9979*10^8 m/sec) / nu nu = constant(2.9979*10^8 m/sec) / lambda |

Quantum Energy | Planck's constant (6.626*10^-34Js) X frequency |

Energy of a Photon | (Planck's constant X Speed of light)/ lambda |

Mass of a Photon | Planck's constant / (wavelength X speed of light) |

Determine Wavelength (given mass) | Planck's constant / (mass X velocity) |

Quantum Numbers | n; l; ml; ms |

l numbers | 0 = s; 1 = p; 2 = d; 3 = f |

Subshells | s = 1; p = 3; d = 5, f = 7 |

Pauli Exclusion Principle | In a given atom not two electrons can have the same set of four quantum numbers |

Heisenberg uncertainty principle | uncertainty in particle's position X uncertainty in particle's momentum (greater than or equal to) planck's constant / 4pi |

n | related to size and energy of the orbital |

l | related to the shape of the orbital |

ml | related to the position of the orbital in space relative to other orbitals |

ms | related to the spin of the electron |

Electron Affinity | Energy change associated with the addition of an electron |

Ionization Energy | Energy change associated with the removal of an electron |

Group 5 Ionization Energy | Group 5 is greater then 4 and 6 |