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assessment of the Eyes

A structure that protects the eye from foreign bodies is the: conjunctiva
Tears flow over the cornea and drain via the lacrimal sac into the: nasal meatus
Contraction of which eye structure controls the amount of light that reaches the retina? iris
Contraction or relaxation of the ciliary body: changes lens thickness
The sensory network of the eye is the: retina
Term infants have a visual acuity of about: 20/400
At what age does an infant usually develop the ability to distinguish color? 6 months
increased level of lysozyme in the tears will occur normally during which life stage? pregnancy
A pregnant woman in her third trimester tells you that her vision has been a little blurred and she thinks she needs to get new contact lenses. You should advise her to: wait until several weeks after delivery to get new lenses.
Which of the following is a relatively benign condition that may occur during pregnancy or labor? Subconjunctival hemorrhage
When does the lens usually become more rigid and the ciliary muscle of the iris become weaker? Around 45 years of age
A condition that typically develops by the age of 45 is: presbyopia.
Which of the following findings, when seen in the infant, is more ominous? White pupils on photographs
Which of the following is a genetic eye disorder that should be included in the history and physical, under family history, for all members of the affected families? Retinal cancer
The Rosenbaum card is used to measure: near vision
When measuring visual acuity, you are assessing cranial nerve: II
Measurement of near vision should be tested: in each eye separately.
Mr. C.’s visual acuity is 20/50. This means that he: can read letters while standing 20 feet from the chart that the average person could read at 50 feet.
Peripheral vision can be estimated by means of which test? Confrontation
The criterion for adequacy of a patient’s visual field is: correspondence with the visual field of the examiner.
Periorbital edema is: a sign of abnormality.
Xanthelasma may suggest that the patient has an abnormality of: lipid metabolism
On inspection of her eyes, you note that the left upper eyelid droops, covering more of the iris than does the right. This is recorded as _____ on the _____. ptosis; left
Ptosis may be secondary to: blepharitis.
What is the condition called when the eyelid is turned away, or everted, from the globe? Ectropion
Entropion implies that the lid is: turned inward
condition in which the eyelids do not completely meet to cover the globe is called: lagophtalmos
Inspection of the tarsal conjunctiva should be performed: when a forein body may be present
An allergy can cause the conjunctiva to have a: cobblestone appearance
An abnormal growth of conjunctiva extending over the cornea from the limbus is known as: a pterygium
A pterygium is more common in people heavily exposed to: ultraviolet light
. His pupils are 2 mm bilaterally and you notice that they fail to dilate when the penlight is moved away. This is characteristic in patients who are or have been: on opioid drugs (morphine)
When testing corneal sensitivity controlled by cranial nerve V, you should expect the patient to respond by: brisk blinking
You observe pupillary response as the patient looks at a distant object and then at an object held 10 cm from the bridge of the nose. You are assessing for: accommodation
Mydriasis is an accompaniment of: coma
The inequality of pupillary size is called: aniscoria
When inspecting the region of the lacrimal gland, palpate: the lower orbital rim near the inner canthus.
You note dark, rust-colored pigment just anterior to the insertion of the medial rectus muscle in an 80-year-old woman. Which action is appropriate? Record the finding in the patient’s record.
Examination to assess for extraocular muscle imbalance is conducted by: having the patient follow your finger through planes.
When there is an imbalance found with the corneal light test, you should then perform the _____ test. cover-uncover
To see retinal details in a myopic patient, you will need to: turn your ophthalmoscope to a minus lens.
The unit of measurement in describing lesion size and location on the fundus is the: disc diameter
Ask the patient to look directly at the light of the ophthalmoscope when you are ready to examine the: macula
After focusing on a blood vessel in the retina with your ophthalmoscope, you attempt to locate the optic disc. You should: follow the vessel as it converges into larger vessels.
After completion of your ophthalmoscopic examination, you record that the AV ratio is 1:2. This indicates that the: arterioles are narrowed.
If a patient has early papilledema, the examiner will be able to detect: dilated retinal veins.
Cupping of the optic disc may be a result of: glaucoma
Drusen bodies are most commonly a consequence of: aging
When drusen bodies are noted to be increasing in number or in intensity of color, the patient should be further evaluated with a(n): amsler grid
Cotton wool spots are most closely associated with: hypertension
The Keith-Wagner-Barker system group IV is characterized by the development of: papilledema
Which of the following may be suggestive of Down syndrome? Prominent epicanthal folds
To differentiate between infants who have strabismus and those who have pseudostrabismus, use the: corneal light reflex
You are attempting to examine the eyes of a newborn. To facilitate eye opening, you would first: dim the room lights
White specks scattered in a linear pattern around the entire circumference of the iris are called: brushfield spots
Opacities of the red reflex may indicate the presence of: cataracts
The Snellen E chart is appropriate for initial visual acuity in what age child? 3 years
When assessing the vision of a 4-year-old girl, you find that she has 20/50 vision in the right eye and 20/30 vision in the left eye. This child should be evaluated first for: amblyopia
You normally expect a child to achieve 20/20 vision by age ____ years. 6 years
What maneuver can be done to reduce systemic absorption of cycloplegic and mydriatic agents when examining a pregnant woman if the examination is mandatory? use nasolacrimal occlusion after instillation
Episcleritis may indicate: an autoimmune disorder
The most common cause of exophthalmos is: graves disease
Horner syndrome is manifested by: ipsilateral miosis and mild ptosis.
Dot hemorrhages, or microaneurysms, and the presence of hard and soft exudates are most commonly seen in: diabetic retinopathy
Changes seen in proliferative diabetic retinopathy are the result of: anoxic stimulation.
Bone spicule pigmentation is a hallmark of: retinitis pigmentosa
An initial sign of retinoblastoma in an infant is: cat’s eye reflex.
Retinal hemorrhages in an infant require investigation for: child abuse
Mrs. Jones brings her 5-year-old son in for a well visit. Which of the following would assess the child for nystagmus? Inspecting movement of the eyes to the six cardinal fields of gaze
Mrs. Harold is a 36-year-old patient who presents to your office with a complaint of visual disturbances. Which of the following correctly describes the method used to assess accommodation? Ask the patient to shift his or her gaze from across the room to an object 6 inches away; note constriction.
Mr. Green is a 63-year-old patient who is having a driver's physical examination completed. On examination you note a senile hyaline plaque. Which of the following best describes this finding? This is a dark, slate gray pigment just anterior to the insertion of the medial rectus muscle.
Mrs. Yates presents to your office with a 3-month-old infant for examination. During your examination you note white specks scattered in a linear pattern around the circumference of the iris. Which of the following would best identify this condition? Brushfield spots suggesting Down syndrome or mental retardation
Until 4 years of age, the eyeballs are less spherical than those of adults, which accounts for why children have: myopic acuity.
Mr. French is a 67-year-old patient who presents to your office with the following complaint: “I have a loss of vision in the outer half of each eye.” Which of the following underlying problems should the examiner consider? Pituitary tumor
Mrs. Carter has vision that at best is 20/210. Mrs. Carter is considered: legally blind.
Mrs. Young has brought her 2-year-old son in for a routine examination. On examination you are unable to elicit a red reflex in her son. This may indicate: retinoblastoma.
The eye muscles are innervated by which of the following cranial nerves? Trochlear, abducens, oculomotor
The outer fibrous layer of the eye is composed of the sclera posteriorly and the _______________anteriorly. cornea
Which of the following is the function of the lens? Permits images from varied distances to be focused on retina
Fibers that originate on the nasal retina decussate (cross over) at what point in the optic pathway? Optic chiasm
Mrs. Jones presents to your office for a complaint of visual disturbances. On examination you note an abnormal growth of conjunctiva from the limbus over the cornea. Which of the following best describes this condition? Pterygium
Visual acuity is essentially a measurement of: central vision.
Mr. Davids is a 48-year-old patient with high cholesterol and diabetes. Individuals with abnormal lipid metabolism are prone to deposition of flat, slightly raised, irregularly shaped, yellow tinted lesions on the periorbital tissues that are called: xanthelasma.
Ptosis is a condition in which the eyelid: covers a portion of the iris and a portion of the pupil.
A hordeolum (sty) is described as a(n): suppurative inflammation of the follicle of an eyelash.
Mr. Lynch is a 46-year-old man who presents to your office for a routine examination. On examination of the corneal light reflex you notice that there is asymmetry of the reflected light. What should your next step be? Perform the cover-uncover test.
You are completing a funduscopic examination on a 45-year-old patient. During the examination you note a red light reflex. Which of the following is this indicative of? Light illuminating the retina.
You are completing a funduscopic examination on a 28-year-old patient. When examining the right eye with the ophthalmoscope, the examiner should use which hand to hold the ophthalmoscope? Right
Mrs. Dublin is a 45-year-old patient who is referred to you with a lesion of the optic nerve at the optic chiasm. Which of the following visual field defects is a result of this lesion? Bitemporal hemianopia
Created by: TwiggyG85