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Chem Sem 1

Honors Chemistry Semester one

314.721 6 significant figures
0.001775 4 significant figures(place-holding zeroes are NOT significant)
23.12 4 significant figures
7.9303 5 significant figures
63000 2 significant figures
0.0091 2 significant figures
34.00 4 significant figures (zeroes to the right of the decimal are significant)
20.02 4 significant figures (zeroes betweend two non-zeroes are significant)
12 books unlimited significant figures (exactly counted things have unlimited significant figures)
200.740 6 significant figures
0.007 1 significant figures
39.0 3 significant figures
61.2+9.35+8.6=(find answer with correct significant figures) 79.2
34.61-17.3= 17.3
ROUND TO THREE SIG FIGS: .001552 .oo155
6051.00 6 significant figures
0.0005 1 significant figures
0.1020 4 significant figures
5000 1 significant figures
0.020 2 significant figures
501 3 significant figures
2 liquid elements in room temp mercury(Hg) and bromine(Br)
metalloids boron(B) silicon(Si) germanium(Ge) arsenic(As) antimony(Sb) tellurium(Te) polonium(Po) astatine(At)
diatomic elements hydrogen, nitrogen oxygen fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine
valence electrons electrons on the outer most shell
family vertical column of elements
period horizontal row of electrons
mass sum of protons and neutrons
atomic number number of protons
matter has mass and takes up space
heterogeneous mixture mixture that is not thorough throughout
element most basic form
compound 2 or more combined elements
aristotle 350BC, 4 elements=earth, wind, fire, water
dalton's atomic theory 1808 matter consists of atoms,indestructible, rearrange but never break apart, identical in mass. can be identified by their weights. different elements can combine to form compounds. atoms are always presented in the same whole number ratio.
Thompson 1895-Thompson, plum pudding model. filled container with gas and attached a battery charge to both ends and can glowed, added a wall with a small opening on one side of the can and a line/strip of green went from one end to the other.
Rutherford 1909-shot alpha particles into gold foil. came up with idea that there are positive and negative particles. came up with model that is very close to what we use today
Bohr 1913-came up with the basis for the present day model of the atom(excluding the neutrons)
chadwick 1932-found out that the protons and electrons aren't adding up to the elements mass. he noticed that there must be neutrons in the nucleus with the protons and the electron clouds around it. present day model.
(NH4)+ ammonium
(NO2)- nitrite
(NO3)- nitrate
(SO3)2- sulfite
(SO4)2- sulfate
(HSO4)- hydrogen sulfate
(OH)- hydroxide
(CN)- cyanide
(PO4)3- phosphate
(HPO4)2- hydrogen phosphate
(H2PO4)- dihydrogen phosphate
(CO3)2- carbonate
(HCO3)- hydrogen carbonate
(ClO)- hypochlorite
(ClO2)- chlorite
(ClO3)- chlorate
(ClO4)- perchlorate
(C2H3O2)- acetate
(MnO4)- permanganate
(Cr2O7)2- dichromate
(CrO4)2- chromate
(O2)2- peroxide
density mass per unit of volume 1g/ml
element simplest substance, only one type of atom
compound 2 or more elements
molecule smallest unit of chemistry compounds
mixture mix of two or more substances
3 states of matter solid, liquid, gas
Dalton's atomic theory 1)elements are made of atoms, 2)atoms of the same element are the same exact, 3)atoms cannot be created, subdivided or destroyed, 4)atoms from different elements can combine to compounds, 5)atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged in chemical reaction
valence electrons the electrons in the outermost ring
core electrons the combined electrons minus the outermost ring
period horizontal rows in the periodic table
group vertical rows on the periodic table
ion charged particle
polyatomic ion charged compound
cation positive ion
anion negative ion
7 diatomic molecule symbols H, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, Hg
Hg^2+ diatomic ion, called mercury 1
acids when there is an "H" in a chemical compound
law of conservation of matter matter cannot be created or destroyed
synthesis reactants combine
sing;e-replacement an element replaces another in the equation
double-replacement 2 elements that replace each other in the equation
combustion combine oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen
spectator ions Same ions on both sides of an equation
avagadro's number 6.022*10^23
empirical formula simplest formula of atoms in a formula
molecular formula shoes all the atoms in a formula
convert moles to grams moles * weight
convert grams to moles grams / weight
convert moles to molecules moles * 6.022*10^23
convert molecules to moles number of atoms / 6.022*10^23
theoretical yield amount of product which is predicted in a reaction
experimental yield amount is actually formed
percent yield percent of the product formed
formula for percent yield theoretical / actual
limiting reagent reactant that is used up
endothermic reaction energy is taken in
exothermic reaction energy in given off
conservation of energy idea that energy is not created or destroyed
equation to find the heat of an object q=Mc^T
specific heat amount of energy it takes to raise the temperature of 1 gram 1 degree Celsius
calorimeter measures heat in a given liquid
Hess' Law the change of reactants to a given product doesn't depend on the steps
calories=>joules calories * 4.184
How much energy that goes into a calorimeter comes out of it? none
group one alkali metals
group 2 alkali earth metals
group 3-12 transition metals
group 17 halogens
group 18 noble gases
metalloids properties of nonmetals and metals
lanthanides upper section of the inner transition metals
actinides lower section of the inner transition metals
2 elements that are liquid at room temperature mercury and bromine
the gold foil experiment was done by which scientist and it caused the discovery of what? Rutherford, protons
km kilometer
cm centimeter
mm millimeter
um micrometer
n nanometer
pm picometer
kg kilogram
cg centigram
mg milligram
ug microgram
ng nanogram
pg picogram
measure distance meter
measure mass kilogram
measure volume liters
measure time second
gig- 10^9
mega 10^6
kilo 10^3
centi 10^-2
milli 10^-3
micro 10^-6
nano 10^-9
pico 10^-12
soluble all nitrates, all NO3, group 1, NH4, (all Cl, Br, I except with(Ag, Hg2, Pb)), (all SO4, except with(Ba, Pb, Ca))
insoluble S, CO3, PO4, (all OH except with(group 1, and Ca and down in group 2))
coefficients the whole numbers in a balanced equations
subscripts cannot be changed in a formula, or have atoms added or subtracted from it
soluble solid to mean a solid that readily dissolves in water; the solid disappears as the ions are dispersed in the water
insoluble and slightly soluble solid same thing; a solid where sure a tiny amount dissolves in water that it is undetectable with the naked eye
molecular equation it shows the complete formulas of all reactants and products
complete ionic equation molecular equation plus the ions of each substance
spectator ions ions which do not participate directly in a reaction in solution
net ionic equation includes only those components tat are directly involved in the reaction
acid substance that produces H ions when it is dissolved in water
base a substance that produces OH ions in water
Created by: 544



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