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KAT PHR 49

Antivirals

QuestionAnswer
Anti herpes drugs typical mechanisms activated by kinases, inhibit polymerase
Acyclovir is derived from guanosine
Acyclovir is used for HSV and VZV
Acyclovir mechanism of action (2) DNA polymerase inhibition, chain termination
Acyclovir is not effective against TK – strains
Acyclovir is excreted via renal
Acyclovir toxicity (2) renal and CNS
Valacyclovir is a longer lasting acyclovir
Penciclovir blocks polymerase DOES NOT terminate chain
Famciclovir is a prodrug activated in liver
Docosanol is a alchohol, inhibits HSV and plasma envelope fusion
Ganciclovir derived from guanine
Ganciclovir mechanism chain termination, DNA polymerase block
Ganciclovir used for CMV how intraocular implant for retinitis
Ganciclovir toxicity is Bone marrow suppression, systemic, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia
Cidofovir mechanism inhibit DNA polymerase, does not require kinase
Cidofovir toxicity nephrotoxic
Foscarnet toxicity nephrotoxic, CNS effects
HSV drugs (4) acyclovir, valacyclovir, penciclovir and famciclovir (-cyclovir)
CMV drugs (4) Ganciclovir, valganciclovir, cidofovir, foscarnet (-gangcylcovir)
Anti Hepatitis drugs interferon, adefovir-dipivoxil, entecavir, lamivudine and ribavirin
IFN a mechanism activates RNAase, degrades RNA
Anti hepatitis drug mechanisms inhibit polymerase
IFN a toxicity myalgia, depression, alopecia, flu like
Adefovir toxicity lactic acidosis, renal tox, hepatic tox
Ribavirin toxicity teratogen, anemia
Anti influenza drugs amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir, zanamivir
Amantidine and rimantadine mechanism block M2 protien channel
oseltamivir and Zanamivir mechanism inhibit neuraminidase
oseltamivir toxicity GI
Zanamivir toxicity bronchospasm in asthma
NRTI means nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NRTI mechanism inhibit reverse transcriptase after phosphorylation
NRTI examples abacavir, didanosine, emtricitabine , -ine
Zidovudine toxicity bone marrow suppression
Abacavir toxicity hypersensitivity
Didanosine toxicity pancreatitis
Stavudine and zalcitabine toxicity peripheral neuropathy
NNRTI means non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor
NRTI are metabolized by P450, hepatic
NNRTI mechanism inhibit reverse transcriptase w.out phosphorylation
NNRTI examples (4) delavirdine, efavirenz, etravirine, nevirapine
Delavirdine and nevirapine toxicity rash, liver enzyme elevation
Efavirenz toxicity teratogen
Protease inhibitors mechanism inhibit protein processing
Protease inhibitor examples atazanavir, darunavir,( -navir)
Indinavir toxicity kidney stone, hyperbilirubinemia
Amprenavir toxicity rash
Atazanavir, fosamprenavir, lopinavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir toxicity GI distress
Atazanavir toxicity peripheral neuropathy
Enfuvirtide mechanism block membrane fusion
Maraviroc mechanism CCR5 receptor antagonist
Enfuvirtide toxicity hypersensitivity
Maraviroc toxicity joint and muscle pain, diarrhea, liver enzymes high
Created by: asindhidude