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1st quarter chem

Describe an appropriate bunsen burner flame. blue, quiet, about 3 inches tall, 3 cones.
What make a bunsen burner flame yellow and floppy and how do you correct the problem? if yellow and floppy needs air open air tanks by adjusting the collar
What are two ways to adjust the height of a Bunsen burner flame? turn the needle valve or the gas jet valve
What is the correct way to pick up broken glass and where do you put it after you pick it up? --clean up immediately --properly handle spilled chemicals --do not use your bare hands --pick up glass with tongs or use the lab bench brush and dust pan --put broken glass in a designated container for broken glass
what is the proper way to boil a liquid in a test tube? --Check to see that the test tube is made of Pyrex --Use a test tube holder or clamp when heating the tube--Hold the test tube at an angle --Heat the test tube from the upper portions downward and continuously move the test tube in and out of the flame
what branch of chemistry is the focus of this class? inorganic
list 3 types of research and explain the function of each. basic- done to gain knowledge applied- carried out to solve a problem technological development- usually involves the production and use of products that improve our quality of life (to tell them apart—using applied research)
Identify a major contribution of each of the following. a.skilled workers from earliest times used fire, used pigments & dyes, recovered iron from iron ore,and made pottery
b.the alchemists spurred the development of science,discovered many elements and compounds,designed lab equipments ,and developed laboratory procedures (distillation—process of purifying a liquid using evaporation and condensation to remove the impurities.
c.lavoisier Showed the oxygen is involved in combustion & rusting
d.becquerel discovered that uranium gives off radiation
e.the curies discovered new radioactive elements (Po & Ra)
f.rutherford and soddy realized that radioactive elements decayed into new elements.
g.democritus named the atom (indivisible)
h.aristotle believed matter was continuous
i.ben franklin observed that objects can have a + or – charge and that like charges repel while unlike charges attract
j.micheal faraday 1st to realize that an atom's structure is related to electricity (used a cathode ray tube)
k.jj thomson showed that the cathode rays are made of identical negatively charged particles, later called electrons
l.robert millikan confirmed that electrons are negative. He also showed that the mass of electron is 9.11 x 10-28g
m.niels bohr devised the bohr atomic model
n.schrodinger devised our current atomic model (quantum mechanical model)
define the following terms: a.volume the amount of 3-dimensional space an object takes up
b.mass is the measure of the amount of matter present
c.matter is anything that has mass and takes up space
d.atom is the smallest unit of an element that keeps the properties of that element
e.element is a pure substance made of one kind of atom
f.compound is a substance that is made from the atoms of 2 or more elements that are chemically bonded
g.molecule is the smallest unit of an element or compound that keeps the properties of that element or compound
what is the difference between intensive and extensive properties and what is an example of each? Extensive properties depend on the amount of matter that is present.(volume, mass, energy present)Intensive properties do not depend on the amount of matter that is present.(melting point, density, boiling point)
create a table that lists the three changes im matter we studied, the part of the atom that is involved (if any), the subatomic particles involved (if any) and whether or not a new substance is formed. see other paper
what is the difference between homogeneous and heterogeneous matter? what types of matter are classified under each and what is an example of each? Homogeneous mixtures are also called solutions.-uniform in composition-same proportion of components throughout(salt or sugar water)Heterogeneous mixtures are not uniform in composition.(italian dressing)
what is the difference between pure substances and mixtures? what types of matter are considered pure and what types are considered mixtures? what is an example of each? The composition of pure substances is the same throughout(elements and compds)(oxygen).The composition of mixtures can vary in composition and properties from sample to sample and within the same sample.(combination of different substances)(granite)
Define the following terms concerning the periodic table: a. group or family vertical column,contains element with similar chemical properties because each has the same number of outer shell electrons
b.series or period horizontal row, Physical and chemical properties change as the elements go across the PT from left to right (same number or energy levels)
c.metals conduct heat and electricity well, ductile,malleable,metallic luster, high tensile strength,most are solids at room temperature (left of stairs)
d.nonmetals do not conduct heat and electricity well, most are gases at room temp (right of the stairs)
e.metalloids characteristics of both metals and nonmetals,all solids at room temp,semiconductors (on and below the stairs)
f.noble gases family 18,generally nonreactive elements, gases at room temperature
what do elements in the same family have in common? number of outer shell electrons
what do elements in the same period have in common? number of energy levels
give an example of a quantity and a magnitude that reflects that quantity. 120 degrees celcius
what is a standard,what is it used for and how is it important? objects or natural phenomena that are of constant value, easy to preserve and reproduce and practical in size. it is used for comparison.
what is the difference between fundamental and derived quantities? fundamental quantities are basic quantities measured in arbitrary units established by international agreement, while derived units are combinations of units or fundamental quantities
list the 4 si base units we studied other than the mole, define each and state the standard unit for each. length-the distance b/t 2 points(meter),mass-amount of matter in a body(kilograms),time-duration of an event(second),temperature-hotness or coldness of an object heat intensity(degrees celsius)
what are the two different types of variables in sound experimental technique and what is the difference between them? independant variable-factor changed diractly by the experimentor, dependant variable- factor that is changed due to independant variable
define two main reasons of analyzing data and list examples of statistics used under each. descriptive statistics- used to give a clearer picture of the data inferential statistics- used to infer beyond the date collected (tv ratings, political polls)
make a chart that compares accuracy and precision. include a definition of each and three factors each depends upon. see other paper
what is a definition for significant figures? all the digits that you can read off an instrument's scale plus a guess
make a chart outlining the four characteristics of atomic models we studied. see other paper
describe an atom see notes
what is the difference between atomic number, mass number, relative atomic mass, and atomic mass(weight)? see notes
what are isotopes? atoms of the same element that have different masses,different number neutrons, same number of electrons and protons
Created by: 14esauc