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Cosmetology Ch 18

Chemical Texture Services

The Chemical texture service that looses overly curly hair into loose curls or waves is Curl re-formation
All chemical texture procedures involve changing the hair structure using chemical and physical changes
The exterior hair structure that protects the hair from damage is the cuticle
The layer of hair that provides strength for elasticity is the cortex
hair bonds that cannot be broken by eat or water are disulfide bonds
the natural pH f hair is between 4.5 and 5.5
One of the most important parts of a successful texture service is the client consultation
Permanent waves cannot be performed if the hair is coated metallic salts
Disulfide bonds are chemical-based side bonds that are formed when Sulfur atoms in two adjacent protein chains are joined together
The measurement used to determine the hydrogen ions in a solution is potential of hydrogen
Chemical texturizers temporarily raise the pH of the hair by lifting the cuticle layer to allow penetration to the cortex layer
Long coiled polypeptide chains that are part of the hairs structure are keratin proteins
The client record card should include a complete evaluation of the length, texture, and condition of the hair
During the hair and scalp analysis procedure, the stylist should look for abrasions and sign of scalp disease
Hair texture that requires a longer processing or rewetting of solution to ensure complete saturation is coarse-textured hair
The measurement of the number of hairs per square inch on the head is density
An indication of the strength of the side bonds is elasticity
The second process of a permanent wave is the chemical change process
In permanent waving the size of the curl is determined by the size of the rod
The permanent wave rod that produces a uniform curl along the entire width of the strand is a straight rod
A wrapping technique using two endpapers, one placed under the strand and one is over the double flat wrap
Permanent wave rods are placed into subsections of a panel called base sections
The position of a permanent wave rod in relation to its base section is the base placement
The technique of wrapping at a 90-degree angle or straight out from the center is half-off base placement
The two basic types of wrapping hair around a perm rod are the spiral method and croquignole method
A technique used to wrap extra-long hair using two rods in opposite directions is a piggyback wrap
A reduction reaction involves either the addition of hydrogen or removal of oxygen
A common, colorless reducing agent used in chemical texture services is thioglycolic acid
The main reducing agent in alkaline permanents is ammonium thioglycolate
Most alkaline permanent waves have a pH between 9.0 and 9.6
The primary low pH reducing agent in acid waves is glyceryl monothioglycolate
An exothermic chemical reaction produces heat
The basic components of acid waves are permanent wave solution and activator neutralizer
An endothermic wave must be activated using an outside heat source
In permanent waving, the process should be determined by the strength of the solution
Hair that is too weak to hold a curl or may be completely straight after a perm is over-processed
The process of stopping the action of a permanent wave is neutralization
Permanent wave solution should be rinsed form the hair for a minimum of 5 minutes
A 90-degree perm wrap that minimizes stress and tension on the hair is half-off based
The process of rearranging extremely curly hair into a strighter or smoother form is Chemical hair relaxing
In extremely curly hair, the thinnest, weakest sections of the hair strand are located at the twists
Thio chemical relaxers usually have a pH value above 10
The active ingredient in all hydroxide relaxers is the hydroxide ion
All hydroxide relaxers can swell the hair up to twice its normal diameter
Hydroxide relaxers remove one atom of sulfur from a disulfide bond converting it into a lanthionine bond
Disulfide bonds broken by hydroxide relaxers can never be reformed
Hydroxide ions left in the hair after a relaxer can be neutralized using an acid-balanced shampoo
Relaxers containing one component used without any additional mixing are metal hydroxide relaxers
Sodium hydroxide relaxers (NaOH) are commonly called lye relaxers
A relaxer with two components mixed immediately prior to use is guanidine hydroxide relaxer
Lithium hydroxide relaxers and potassium hydroxide relaxers are advertised and sold as no-lye relaxers
Ammonium sulfite and ammonium bisulfite are marketed as mild alternative relaxers
Cream used to protect the skin and scalp during a hair relaxing process is base cream
The strength of relaxers is determined by the concentration of hydroxide
To avoid over-processing during a retouch relaxer application, wait until the last fer minutes of processing to apply relaxer to the area closest to the scalp
Conditioners with an acidic pH that condition and normalize hair prior to shampooing are normalizing lotions
Curl reformation does not straighten the hair, it simply makes the existing curl Larger and looser
To avoid scalp irritation, prior to the application of a hydroxide relaxer never shampoo the hair
To avoid excessive stretching of the hair when combing out tangles, use a wide toothed comb
Performing texture services involves powerful chemicals that must be handled with caution
The term used to describe removing excess water before the application of a neutralizer is blotting
When checking for test curl development, the test curl should reflect firm S formation
When performing test curls, the rod should be unwound approximately 1 1/2 turns
Incorrect placement of the rubber band of perm rods will cause band marks or breakage
When working with hair that has been chemically relaxed, you should avoid using hot irons



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