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Rad concepts ch. 2

chapter two key terms

Amplitude the intensity of the wave defined by its maximal height
atom the smallest particle of an element that still possess the chemical properties of that element
atomic mass number (A) the mass of an atom; used when precision is not necessary; is equal to the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic number the number of nuclear protons in an atom unique to each element; also known as the Z number.
chemical energy the form of energy released during a chemical reaction.
compound a complex substance; two or more elements that are chemically united in a definite proportion.
electrical energy the result of movement of electrons; also known as electricity
electricity the result of movement of electrons; also known as electrical energy
electromagnetic energy a form of energy resulting from electric and magnetic disturbances in space.
ectromagnetic radiation (EM) a form of energy that is the result of electric and magnetic disturbances in space
electromagnetic spectrum describes the different forms of electromaganetic radiation
electron (e-) negatively charged subatomic particle of an atom
electron binding energy (Eb) the amount of energy needed to remove the electron from the atom.
electron volt (eV) measurement of the binding energy of an electron; the energy one elctron will have when it is accelerated by an electrical potential of 1 volt.
element a simple substance; it cannot be broken down into any simpler substances by ordinary means.
excitation process in which electrons in an atom are moved to a higher energy state without actually being removed from the atom.
frequency the number of waves that passes a particular point in a given time frame.
heat the result of the motion of atoms and molecules; also known as thermal energy
ion an atom that has gained or lost an electron
ionization process of removing or adding an electron from an atom
isotope atoms that have the same number of protons in the nucleus but differ in the number of neutrons
kinetic energy the energy of motion
K-shell the orbital shell closest to the nucleus
lambda the greek letter that represents the measurement of a wavelength
M theory electrons and quarks may not be particles, but instead may be extremely small loops of rapidly vibrating string like matter.
mass the quantity of matter contained in an object.
mechanical energy the result of the action of machines or physical movement; can be potential or kinetic.
mixture the combination of two or more substances
molecule two or more atoms chemically united; the smallest particle of a compound that still possesses the characteristics of the compound.
neutron (n (superscript 0)) subatomic particle of an atom containing no charge.
nu greek letter used to denote the number of cycles per second.
nuclear energy the energy stored in the bond of the nucleus of an atom.
nucleon the protons and nuetrons that make up the nucleus.
nucleus the small dense center of the atom; consists of protons and neutrons.
octet rule that the number of electrons in the outermost shell will never exceed 8 electrons.
period the time required to complete one cycle of a wave.
photon a small bundle of energy. The specific amount of energy depends on frequency; also known as quantum.
potential energy the energy an object has because of its position.
proton (p+) positively charged subatomic particle of an atom.
quantum a small bundle of energy. The specific amount of energy depends on frequency; also known as a photon.
quark subnuclear structure that makes of protons and neutrons.
radiation energy emitted and transferred through matter.
shell the energy level occupied by an electron determined by the distance from the nucleus.
string theory the idea that matter behaves differently depending on the vibration on the string-like matter.
substance a material that has a definite and constant composition.
temperature a measure of thermal energy
thermal energy the result of the motion of atoms and molecules; also known as heat.
valence the chemical combining characteristic of an element; determined by the number of electrons in the outermost shell.
wavelength the distance between two successive points on a wave.
weight the force that an object exerts under the influence of gravity
Z number the number of nuclear protons in an atom, unique to each element; also known as the atomic number.
list 5 types of energy electrical energy, mechanical energy, nuclear energy, thermal energy, electromagnetic energy.
for electromagnetic radiation what is the relationship between frequency and wavelength? if wavelength decreases, frequency increases and vice versa, if wavelength increases, frequency decreases.
for electromagnetic radiation what is the relationship between frequency and photon energy? photon energy and frequency are directly proportional. If the photon energy is doubled the frequency is doubled.
List 5 properties of x-rays 1. they are highly penetrating, invisible rays which are a form of electromagnetic radiation. 2. travel in straight lines. 3. can ionize matter. 4. cannot be focused by a lens. 5. affect photographic film.
the two major branches of sciences are? physical science and biological science.
what are the three basic subatomic particles? protons, neutrons, and electrons.
In the periodic table of elements the elements are arranged in periods and groups. How are the elements similar within each period? Within each group? 1. The periods represent elements with the same quantum number or number of electron shells. 2. The groups represent elements with the same number of electrons in the outermost shell.
What formula is used to determine the maximum number of electrons that can be contained in a given shell? How many electrons can be contained in the N-shell? In the Q shell? 1. 2(n2)..... 2. 2(4 squared) = 2x16=32 3. 2(7squared) = 2x49=98
How do radiations differ along the electromagnetic spectrum? visible light, radio waves, microwaves, infrared and violet light, x-rays and gamma rays.
Created by: Baker RAD 2012
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