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MBC - Lecture 54

Molecular Basis of Cancer I (Chambers)

Lecture 54 Molecular Basis of Cancer I
Characteristics of Cancer Cells: unregulated proliferation, invasion of surrounding normal tissues, and metastasis to more distant parts of body
Tumor Any abnormal proliferation of cells, may be benign or malignant
Benign Tumor Remains confined to its original location
Malignant Tumor Capable of invading surrounding normal tissue or spreading through body by circulatory/lymphatic system
Only ___ tumors are proper cancers. malignant
Carcinomas Cancer of epithelial cells
Sarcomas Cancer of connective tissue and muscle cells
Leukemia/Lymphoma Cancer of blood forming cells and cells of the immune system
Glioma/Retinoblastoma Cancer of central nervous system and eye
Cancers have characteristics that reflect their ___. origin
___ tumors make up the majority of human tumors. Epithelial
Beneath the epithelial cell layer is the ___. basement membrane (basal lamina);
Beneath the basement membrane is the ___. stroma
Most common human cancers are ___. carcinomas
Carcinomas are responsible for >___% of cancer-related deaths in the western world. >80%
___ carcinomas arise from protective epithelial cells. Squamous cell
Adenocarcinomas arise from specialized epithelial cells that ___. secrete
Common squamous cell carcinomas: skin, cervix, lung
Common adenocarcinomas: lung, colon, breast, pancrease, prostate, ovary
Sarcomas derive from various cell types, including: fibroblasts, adipocytes, osteoblasts, and myocytes
Sarcomas account for ___% of tumors encountered in clinics. 1%
Leukemia Malignant derivatives of blood forming cell lineages, moves freely through blood circulation
Lymphomas Tumors of lymphoid lineages (B-/T-lymphocytes), aggregate to form solid masses, commonly in lymph nodes
Neuroectodermal tumors arise from from components in the: central and peripheral nervous system
Neuroectodermal tumors compose ___% of all diagnosed cancers, and is responsible for ___% of cancer-related deaths. 1.3%, 2.5%
Most cancers derive from: a single abnormal cell
Evidence of single-cell origin derived from: same chromosomal abnormality, same X chromosome inactivated, production of same antibody from malignant B-lymphocytes
Development of cancer is a ___ process, where the cells gradually become malignant. multistep
Tumor development involves selection of cells with increased capacity for ___, ___, ___, and ___. proliferation, survival, invasion, and metastasis.
Carcinogens Agents that can cause cancer
Chemical carcinogens act by: damaging DNA and introducing mutations
___, ___, and ___ are carcinogens in tobacco smoke, causing 80-90% of lung cancers. Benzopyrene, dimethylnitrosamine, and nickel compounds
Ionizing radiation causdes: DNA breaks and cross-linking between DNA (introducing mutations)
Some viruses introduce ___that can cause cancer. foreign DNA
___ and ___ virus can liver cancer and cervical cancer, respectively. Hepatitis and papilloma
Ames Test Asses mutagenic properties of compounds with homogenized rat liver, counts bacterial colonies to determine carcinogenic properties
Some carcinogens contribute to cancer progression by stimulating cell ___ (instead of introducing mutations). proliferation (i.e. hormones likes estrogen)
Cancer results from mutations in genes controlling ___. cell proliferation
Two mutational routes for uncontrolled cell proliferation are: proto-oncogene/oncogene and tumor suppressor gene
Oncogene mutation has a dominant effect, requiring: only 1 copy to be mutated
Tumor suppressor gene has a recessive effect, requiring: both copies to be mutated
Most retroviruses contain only three genes: gag, pol, and env
Gag, pol, and env do not induce: cell transformation
Retroviruses that cause cancer have acquired ___. oncogenes
Retroviruses pick up oncogenes by ___. accident
Any gene can be ___ into the retrovirus. incorporated
Incorporation of non-oncogenes into the retrovirus leads to: nothing (generally)
Most oncogenes encode for proteins that stimulate: growth pathways
Many growth factors promote proliferation of cells by inducing ___ expression. cyclin D
Oncogenes signal ___ in absence of extracellular cues. proliferation
Created by: emyang