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Atoms and Elements

Basic Chem Test #2

What is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element? Atom
A type of matter that has a fixed/definite composition: Pure Matter
What are the 2 different categories of pure matter? Elements and Compounds
The type of matter that is composed of only ONE type of atom. It cannot be broken down into simpler substances. Element
Two or more substances that are physically mixed, but not chemically combined: Mixture
This matter consists of a combination of 2 or more elements, always in the same ration: Compound
This type of mixture is uniform throughout the sample (ex: air or salt water): Homogenous
The components of this type of mixture do NOT have a uniform composition throughout the sample (ex: oil & water): Heterogenous
Characteristics of an element that can be observed or measured without affecting the identity of the element: Physical Properties
A foundation source of information concerning the known elements: Periodic Table
This number on the periodic table physically IDENTIFIES the element. It also represents the number of PROTONS in one atom of that element: Atomic Number
This is equal to the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of 1 atom of that specific element: Mass Number
This number on the periodic table is relative to the element's weighted average of mass using an "average atom." Atomic Mass
This is the decimal number below any given element on the periodic table: Atomic Mass
This is the whole number located above any given element on the periodic table: Atomic Number
The ______ and the _______ "live" in the nucleus of an atom. protons and neutrons
The mass of an atom is contained in the ________. nucleus
The nucleus of an atom has a _________ charge. positive
Atoms of the same element that differ ONLY in mass (meaning, they differ in the # of neutrons): Isotopes
In Isotopic Notation, that particular atom's _______ _______ is located to the upper left of the chemical symbol, while the _______ ________ of the element is located to the lower left. Mass Number / Atomic Number
If an isotope of Flourine has a mass number of 19, and an atomic number of 9, it must have ___ neutrons present in the nucleus. 10
In an atom, these are the chemically active electrons: Valence Electrons
Group ___ ___ on the periodic table contains the chemically inert gases. 8A
Each horizontal row of the periodic table is a: Period
Each vertical column of the periodic table is a: Group
"Families" of elements on the periodic table that have similar properties: Groups
In Groups 1A-8A, the group number indicates the number of ________ __________ for the elements in each vertical column. valence electrons
The physical arrangement of the elements in the MODERN periodic table is in order of increasing _______ ________. atomic number
The ________ _______ states that the properties of elements recur in a repeating pattern when arranged according to increasing atomic number. Periodic Law
Part of Dalton's Atomic Theory was that all atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties. HOWEVER, the discovery the ________ by Chadwick in 1932 brought about the realization atoms in a given element can have different masses. neutron
This subatomic particle has no electrical charge, but it DOES have a mass: Neutron
This subatomic particle has great kinetic energy: Electron
Generally, the energy levels closest to the nucleus contain electrons with the _________ energies, while the energy levels farther away contain electrons with ________ energies. lower / higher
"A" Groups contain _________ elements. Representative
"B" Groups contain __________ elements. Transition
__________ elements are all metals. Transition
__________ elements have variable valences, while ___________ elements have valences that correspond directly with their group number. Transition / Representative
__________ elements have rather predictable reactions, whereas _________ elements are less predictable. Representative / Transition
_________ electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom. Valence
An _______-____ symbol is a convenient way to represent the valence electron of an atom of an element. Electron-dot
The distance from the atom's nucleus to the valence (outermost) electrons is the: Atomic Radius
The larger the ________ ________, the larger the atom's volume Atomic Radius
In Representative Elements (A Groups), the atomic radius _________ within a group from top to bottom, and _________ from left to right across a period increases / decreases
Electrons are held in atoms by their attraction to the _________. nucleus
The energy needed to remove the least tightly bound electron from an atom in the gaseous state: Ionization Energy
When an electron is removed from a neutral atom, a particle called a __________ with a ________ charge is formed. cation / positive
The ionization energy _______ within a group from top to bottom, but ________ from left to right across a period. decreases / increases
Which element in the group 3A (on the periodic table) requires the most amount of energy to move 1 valence electron? Boron (B)
Which specific cation will Al (aluminum) form? Al 3+
How do metal atoms form ions? They LOSE valence electrons, thus forming POSITIVE ions.
How do non-metals form ions? They GAIN valence electrons, thus forming negative ions.
When a metal atom loses ALL of its valence electrons, it becomes a positive ion called a(n) ________. cation
When a nonmetal atom gains enough valence electrons to form an octet (8 valence electrons), it becomes a negative ion called a(n) _______. anion
What is the equation for Ionization Energy? Na(g)+ energy (ionization) --> Na+(g) + e-
Mass Number is associated with which part of the atom? The nucleus (because it is the SUM of the number of protons and number of neutrons, which both reside in the nucleus!
The radius of an atom will tell us its relative __________. volume
The net charge of an atom is: Zero (it's neutral)
The number of electrons in an atom is equal to the number of its _________. protons
The average atom used to determine Atomic Mass is based on the mass of each isotope times the ________ ________. percent abundance
What are the relative masses of the subatomic particles? proton = 1 amu, neutron = 1 amu, electron = 0 amu
What is the symbol for a neutron? n^0
What is the symbol for an electron? e^-
What is the symbol for a proton? p^-
What is a proton's electrical charge? 1+
What is an electron's electrical charge? 1-
What is a neutron's electrical charge? 0
What is the unit used in measuring the mass of a subatomic particle? amu (atomic mass unit)
Give the number of electrons, protons, and neutrons in one aton mof Oxygen-18: The Atomic Number for Oxygen is 8, meaning it has 8 protons. 18 is the Mass Number for this specific atom of oxygen, which is the sum of the # of protons and the # of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. Mass # - Atomic # = # of neutrons. (10 n^0)
What is the solid geometric form of an atom? Sphere
Where are valence electrons located? In the outermost energy levels
An atom has 5 electrons and 7 neutrons. This atom is an atom of which element? This atom is which specific atom? It has 5 electrons, meaning it also has 5 protons. The element with the Atomic # of 5 on the Periodic Table is Boron (B). More specifically, this is an atom of Boron-12.
Write the electron energy levels arrangement for an atom of fluorine: 1s^2 2s^2 2p^5
Which subatomic particle relates to the volume of an atom? The electron (because its volume is determined by the atomic radius, which is created by the electron cloud)
Created by: taranorwood