Save
Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
focusNode
Didn't know it?
click below
 
Knew it?
click below
Don't know
Remaining cards (0)
Know
0:00
share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

MBC - Lecture 51

Glucose Homeostasis (Mock)

QuestionAnswer
Lecture 51 Glucose Homeostasis
Inadvertent starvation causes: Poverty/neglect/abuse, anorexia nervosa, GI disease
Iatrogenic starvation causes: Pre-op, bowel rest, weight loss
Subcutaneous adipose tissue accounts for approximately ___ of fuel reserve. 2/3
Skeletal muscle accounts for approximately ___ of fuel reserve. 1/3
During starvation, blood glucoses ___. decreases
During starvation, plasma insulin ___. decreases
During starvation, plasma glucagon ___. increases
After ___ hours of starvation, liver glycogen is used up. 12-24 hours
During starvation, ketogenesis is ___. increased
During starvation, plasma free fatty acids ___. increases (become main source of energy)
Under normal circumstance BUN level is ___. constant/stable (regardless of protein intake)
BUN goes up during ___ failure. renal failure (inability to excrete nitrogen)
Glucagon ___ G-6-Pase, F-1,6-Bpase, and PEPCK. up-regulates
Insulin ___ G-6-Pase, F-1,6-Bpase, and PEPCK. down-regulates
Ethanol is metabolized to ___. acetaldehyde
Ethanol metabolism converts and traps ___. NAD+/NADH
Trapping of NADH impairs ___. Gluconeogenesis (blocked lactate to glucose) and OAA tied up as malate (malate dehydrogenase)
Ethanol potentiates ___. insulin
Postprandial state is similar to ___ induced state. insulin
During overnight fast, the liver and muscle is running on ___. glycogen
During overnight fast, ___ is used (even though glycogen is not all gone). fat
During overnight fast, glycerol from TG breakdown is used in ___. gluconeogenesis
During overnight fast, ketosis is turned ___. on
Glucose-Alanine Cycle Transport alanine from muscle to the liver for gluconeogenesis
Cori Cycle “Glucose-lactate” cycle, transport lactate from muscle to the liver for gluconeogenesis
During prolonged fasting, glycogen is ___. depleted
During prolonged fasting, ___ is the major source of energy. fatty acid (from TG breakdown)
During prolonged fasting, ___from fat breakdown is glucose sparing. ketogenesis
High glucose inhibits ___. glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase
Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate is an allosteric activator of ___. PFK-1
Malonyl-CoA inhibits ___ in B-oxidation. CPT I
Excess citrate is converted to ___ for fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. acetyl-CoA
Phosphorylation signaled by glucagon: GPCR, adenylate cyclase, cAMP, PKA
Dephosphorylation signaled by insulin: RTK, protein phosphatase (targets PKA activated enzymes), cAMP phosphodiesterase
Phosphorylation by glucagon ___ glycogen synthase. inactives (decrease glycogen synthesis)
Phosphorylation by glucagon ___ glycogen phosphorylase and its kinase. activates (increase G1P release)
Phosphorylation by glucagon ___ PFK-2. inactivates (decrease glycolysis)
Phosphorylation by glucagon ___FBPase-2. activates (increase gluconeogenesis)
Phosphorylation by glucagon ___ PK. inactivates (increase gluconeogenesis)
Phosphorylation by glucagon ___ ACC. inactivates (decrease malonyl-CoA)
Dephosphorylation by insulin ___ protein phosphatase 1. activates
Dephosphorylation by insulin ___ glycogen synthase. activates (increase glycogenesis)
Dephosphorylation by insulin ___ glycogen phosphorylase and its kinase. inactivates (decrease G1P release)
Dephosphorylation by insulin ___ glut2 and glucokinase. activates
Dephosphorylation by insulin ___ PFK-2. activates (increase glycolysis)
Dephosphorylation by insulin ___ FBPase-2. inactivates (decreases gluconeogenesis)
Dephosphorylation by insulin ___ ACC. activates (increase FA synthesis)
Normal blood glucose level: 60 to 110
Low blood glucose level (hypoglycemic): <45
High blood glucose level (diabetes mellitus): >120
Fasting Oral Glucose Load Standard dose of glucose is given then read 2 hours later, normal levels are <8 mmol/L, diabetic levels are > 11 mmol/L
Impaired glucose tolerance (“pre-diabetic”) is the area between ___ and ___. diabetic and normal
Hb A1c levels: >7% poor control of diabetes, ~6% is minimal risk, >5% increased risk for hypoglycemia
Lag effect in Hb A1c test is due to: the lifespan of erythrocytes (120 days)
DM Type 1 – Onset Usually <20 years old
DM Type 1 – Insulin Synthesis Absent or reduced (immune destruction)
DM Type 1 – Plasma Insulin Concentration Low or absent
DM Type 1 – Islet Cell Antibodies Yes
DM Type 1 – Genetic Inheritance associated with HLA antigens
DM Type 1 – Obesity Uncommon
DM Type 1 – Ketoacidosis Yes
DM Type 2 – Onset Usually <40 years old
DM Type 2 – Insulin Synthesis Preserved, combination of impaired production and insulin resistance
DM Type 2 – Plasma Insulin Concentration Low, normal, or high
DM Type 2 – Islet Cell Antibodies No
DM Type 2 – Genetic Polygenic, not associated with HLA
DM Type 2 – Obesity Common
DM Type 2 – Ketoacidosis Uncommon
Created by: emyang
 

 



Voices

Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards