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MBC - Lecture 50

Water Soluble Vitamins III, Trace Minerals (Mock)

Lecture 50 Water Soluble Vitamins III, Trace Minerals
___ is an essential part of coenzyme A. Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid deficiency is rare, and leads to ___. burning foot syndrome
Biotin deficiency leads ___ around the openings. rashes
Mammals can do ___ fixation. carbon dioxide
Mammals cannot do ___ fixation. net carbon dioxide
Biotin + ATP → Biotinyl-AMP + Apocarboxylase, catalyzed by biotinyl-AMP synthetase
Biotinyl-AMP + Apocarboxylase → Holocarboxylase, catalyzed by holocarboxylase synthase
Holocarboxylase synthase deficiency: similar to biotin deficiency, unable to fix biotin to apocarboxylase, increased organic acid excretion
3-Methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: isovaleryl-CoA to 3-HIA, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA to 3-MCG
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency: propionyl-CoA to 3-OH propionate, propionylglycine, and methylcitrate
Propionyl-CoA buildup can lead to substitution of acetyl-CoA in TCA to form ___. methylcitrate
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase activity ___ in biotin deficiency. decreases
Propionyl-CoA carboxylase activation coefficient ___ in biotin deficiency. increases
Biotinidase Catalyzes cleavage of E-biotin to biotin and peptides, so biotin can be absorbed
Biotinidase deficiency: leads to biotin deficiency due to malabsorption
Dietary iron is ___ absorbed. poorly
___ is the best absorbed formed of iron. Fe2+
___ reclaims Fe. Macrophages
Vitamin C ___ iron absorption. increases
Increased demand for iron during: menstruation, pregnancy, and growth
Ferritin Intracellular Fe binding protein, 24 subunits, 4500 Fe3+ atoms in ferritin
Transferrin Coded by TF gene, transports Fe from intestine to tissues/bone marrow
Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC) Measures transferrin and its ability to carry iron in blood
Percent Transferrin Saturation Low <10%, Normal =30%, High >60%
Hemosiderin Iron overload, amorphous glops (hemosiderin) form around ferritin
Vitamin C assists in Fe absorption by: reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+, catalyzed by ferrireductase
Fe2+ is absorbed by: DMT-1
Fe2+reoxidized to Fe3+ in the enterocyte and stored in ___. ferritin
Ferroportin exports the ___ form of Fe. Fe2+ (Fe3+ in ferritin must be reduced to be exported)
Hepcidin ___ ferrorportin. inhibits
Fe homeostasis occurs primarily at the ___. intestine
Loss-of-function mutation in ferroportin causes ___. iron deficiency anemia
Loss-of-interaction of ferrorportin with hepcidin causes ___. iron toxicity (iron overload), hemosiderin, hemochromatosis
___ inhibits the binding of transferrin-Fe3+ to TfR1 cell surfaces, which leads to incorporation of Fe into the cell. Hfe
Hfe deficiency leads to: secondary hemochromatosis (Fe overload)
Zinc is a cofactor to > ___ enzymes. 300
Zinc Fingers Zn2+ coordinated with 4 amino acid residues, transcription factor/nuclear hormone receptor/signal transduction
Enzymatic reactions zinc is a coenzyme for: metabolis, protein degradation/synthesis, fatty acid synthesis, nucleic acid synthesis, heme synthesis, oxidative damage protection
Zinc deficiency: agnosia, anorexia, rash, impaired healing, exocrine/endocrine pancreatic function (diarrhea/glucose tolerance), spermatogenesis, DNA replication (growth retardation)
Acrodermatitis Enteropathica Inherited Zn malabsorption, severe skin rash, diarrhea, alopecia
Causes of zinc deficiency: severe burns, GI diseases, increased loss with albumin (nephrotic syndrome, dialysis), IV feeding, stress
Serum zinc measurement affected by: inflammation, stress, cancer, smoking, steroid, hemolysis
Copper deficiency is rare, and can occur by: reduced intake (extended high fiber diet) and excess loss (dialysis)
Copper deficiency: microcytic hypochromic anemia, neutropenia, collagen degeneration, skin depigmentation, hypercholesterolemia
Menke’s Syndrome Inherited Cu transport deficienc, alteration in hair structure
Copper toxicity: hemolysis, liver and brain cell damage
Wilson’s Disease ATP7B defective copper excretion from cells, chronic accumulation, liver failure/CNS dysfunction
Selenium is involved in ___ and ___. selenocysteine and selenomethionine
Selenium is a cofactor for: selenoprotein P & W, glutathione peroxidase
Selenoprotein P & W Protection from oxidative damage, Se delivery
Keshan Disease Se deficiency cardiomypathy
Created by: emyang