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pht 100 1

chapter 1 part 2

most studies haven't documented cost savings of mail order pharm]s
mail order pharm]s must fill 3 mos. supply of drug for chronic disease rx's
the savings are offset by drug wastage if the patient/customer has a bad reaction or the doctor changes the drug strength/name
some medication counseling is limited to printouts & toll-free calls
there are safety, storage, & legal matters for mail order rx's & time delays between orders are an issue
institutional pharm]s are associated with organized health care delivery systems
institutional pharm]s consist of home healthcare, long term care, managed care, nuclear pharm]s and most common institutions like hospital pharm]s
1/4 of pharmacists work in hospitals
the hospital pharmacists prepares/supervises preps of unit dosage system, sterile iv meds & inventory
for sterilization, techs work in a hospital's clean room under specialized ventilation cabinets called laminar flow hoods to prep steriles & hazardous drugs
in hospital clean rooms techs wear gowns, masks, hairnets, bootees, & gloves
home health care is a delivery service of medical, nursing,& pharmaceutical supplies for home staying patients
hospitalized patients can continue treatment at home with meds & ivs aftern they've been discharged
in pharm] what continues growing is home health care
workers of home health care pharm]s must be available on a 24 hr. basis
the prepared meds of home health care are delivered to the patients home
pharmacists/nurses educate patients/caregivers on meds & equipment uses
extended care facilities are long term facilities like nursing homes
long term care facilities provide institutional services for elders and disabled patients who can't provide care for themselves due to disease or illness
medical and residential care are provided long term for the resident's needs
skilled care facilities are for 24hr. care patients recovering from hospitalization
some longterm care facilities have an inhouse pharm]
other long term care facilities either have a contract with a community pharmacy or let residents choose their pharm]
inhouse pharm] dispenses 7 day supplies of meds in blister packs
a community pharm] that provides nursing home meds will fill carts or trays with a 30 day worth of meds since meds frequently change in this environment
kaiser permanente was one of the first managed care organizations
kaiser permanente was also a nonprofit organization that started in california in the 1930s
hmo is health maintainence organization
hmo provides health insurance using a managed care model
most hmo's are outpatient clinics
some hmo's may own hospitals
the duties are similar for community pharm] techs & hmo techs
the philosophy guiding hmo care is that keeping people healthy lowers health care system expenses
hmo encourages healthy lifestyles
checkups & vaccines are also encouraged by hmo's
most hmo's have their own salary staff physicians
other hmo's have contracts with private practice physicians
to see a specialist, patients need a referral from their hmo physician
the "gate keeper" to healthcare is what the primary care physician serves as
without the quality compromises, hmo's slow the inflation pace of healthcare costs
many employers have hmo as a healthcare plan
centralized primary-care clinics are what most hmo's are
centralized primary care clinics have in one place departments for adults, pediactrics, obgyn's, pharm]s, x-rays, and labs
pharmacists recommend the formularies of hmo's
medical staff approve the formularies of hmo's that pharmacists recommend
hmo rx refills may be automated
the tiered for hmo rx pricing plan is cheap generics, expensive "prefered" brands, & more expensive "nonprefered" brands
a restricted formulary & tiered pricing is the reason for hmo pharm]s having lower brand names stock than community pharm]s
the tiered plan & restricted formulary makes it easier for insurance to cover community pharm] drug claims
generic or "prefered" brands are incentive for patienrts choices
a nuclear pharm] is a specialized practice that compounds sterile radioactive drugs for 100+ dianostic/therapeutic uses
nuclear pharm] practices require specialized equipment, traning, & certified radiation safety
staff of nuclear pharm]s wear badges to monitor radiation exposure
off-site is where nuclear pharm]s are commonly located
one of several specialty pharmaceutical manufacturers manage nuclear pharm]s
the pharmacists role has 4 stages traditional, scientific, clinical, & pharmaceutical eras
the traditional era was dominated by dispension of drugs from plants & herbs
the scientific era was dominated by scientific testing of synthetic drugs effects on the body since they were in masses
the 1960's were the clinical era
in the clinical era pharmacists became dispensers of drug info
the pharmaceutical era expanded mission statements of a professional to be responsible for drug therapy results
pharmacists used to bo known as apothecaries
in the traditional era pharmacist/apothecaries compounded 80% of rx's
Created by: frescah