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MBC - Lecture 48

Lipid Soluble Vitamins II (Mock)

Lecture 48 Lipid Soluble Vitamins II, Water Soluble Vitamins I;
Synthetic form of vitamin K has ___ chains and is ___ potent. 0 chains, more potent
Source of vitamin K are ___ and ___. dietary and intestinal microbes
Vitamin K is absorbed in the ___ and ___. colon and distal ileum
Vitamin K Dependent Carboxylases: Prothrombin, Factors VII, IX, X
Factors VII, IX, X and prothrombin contain a unique modified glutamate residue, ___. γ-carboxyglutamate (Gla)
Gla residues are formed from newly synthesized factors by ___ in the liver (before secretion). vitamin K-dependent carboxylase
Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase uses both ___ and ___. O2 and CO2
The CO2 is incorporated into the ___ residue at the ___ position. glutamate residue, γ-position
Vitamin K (epoxide) is reduced to vitamin K (quinone) by ___. vitamin k epoxide reductase
Vitamkin K (quinone) is reduced to vitamin KH2 (hydroquinone) by ___. vitamin k reductase
Warfarin (Coumadin) Vitamin K analog (rat poison), inhibits both vitamin K epoxide reductase and vitamin K reductase, inhibits coagulation
Gla is a high affinity ___ chelator. calcium
Gla/calcium complexes allow interaction with ___ membrane lipids, leading to correct protein structures. acidic
Vitamin K deficiency is detected by ___. prothrombin time
Most water soluble vitamins are ___ and cannot be ___. essential, synthesized
Water soluble vitamins are used as ___ for reactions (exceptions are ___ and ___). coenzymes, (ascorbic acid/vitamin C, biotin)
Pathophysiology of water soluble deficient vitamins is result of reduced ___ activity. enzyme
Water soluble vitamin deficiency presents with: multiple common deficiencies and overlapping findings, challenge is to recognize isolated and multiple deficiencies
Water soluble vitamin deficiency is treated by: complete vitamin supplement, easier than individual testing for deficiency
Overlapping findings for water soluble vitamin deficiency: rapid turnover of cell types, dermatitis/glossitis/cheilitis/diarrhea, impaired energy transduction, peripheral neuropathy, depression/confusion/malaise/lack of coordination
Causes of water soluble vitamin deficiency: vitamins not stored, decreased intake/absorption, increased requirement, decreased precursor
General order of appearance in water soluble vitamin deficiency: decreased blood levels, altered cell function, clinical symptoms, gross anatomical defects
Toxicity of water soluble vitamins: toxicity recapitulates deficiency by enzyme inactivation (exception is biotin and vitamin C since no enzyme)
Important reactions involving thiamine pyrophosphate are: transketolase/transaldolase, pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase
Thiamine pyrophosphate levels can be measured by enzymatic assessment of ___. RBC transketolase
Active form of thiamin is ___. thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP)
TPP is an ___. enzyme cofactor
Thiamin-ATP Phosphoryltransferase Catalyzes the formation of TPP
Additional phosphorylation yields ___, used in nerve conduction. thiamin triphosphate (TP3)
Thiamine is found in ___. most foods
Thiamin Deficiency Early manifestations include anorexia/nausea/constipation, later manifestations include depression/peripheral neuropathy/ataxia/opthaloplegia
Wenicke-Korsakov’s Psychosis Thiamine deficiency, especially in chronic alcoholism
FMN and FAD are ___ and unable to be synthesized de novo. essential
Complex II (ETC) is ___, a ___ dependent enzyme. succinate dehydrogenase, flavin
Dehydrogenases tend to be ___ or ___ dependent. FAD or FMN
___ can be used to measure FAD levels. RBC glutathione reductase
Sources of riboflavin are: warm blooded animals and fish, dairy products, seeds, green leaf vegetables
Pellagra (Four D’s) Dermatitis, Diarrhea, Dementia, Death
Nicotinamide is synthesized from dietary ___ and ___. tryptophan and nicotinic acid (niacin)
Synthesis of NAD from tryptophan uses ___, ___, and ___. pyridoxine, riboflavin, and iron
Created by: emyang