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Chemistry AP Ch. 14

Acids, Bases, and Aqueous Equilibria

Characteristics of Acids Sour
Characteristics of Bases Bitter; Slippery
Arrhenius Acid/Base acids produce hydrogen ions in aqueous solution while bases produce hydroxide ions
Bronsted-Lowry Acid/Base Model Acids are protons (H+) donors and bases are proton acceptors
Lewis Acid/Base Mordel Acids are electron pair acceptors while bases are electron pair donors
Hyrdronium Ion H30+; can be used interchangably with H+.
Conjugate Acid Base + Proton (H+)
Conjugate Base everything that remains of an acid molecule after proton is lost. (HCl -> Cl-; HC2H3O2->C2H3O2-)
Acid Dissociation Constant A stupid name that Jones could use to throw us off and make us miss unnecessary points because we didnt read her notes. It's a fancy name for Ka
Conj. Base of Weak Acid strong conj. base. much stronger than water.
Conj. base of Strong Acid weak weak weak conjugate base.
Amphoteric Substance Substance that can act as an acid or as a base (H20, Fe(OH)3)
Ion product constant of water See Dissociateion constant of and acid. its just another name for a Kw; always 1E-14 at 25 degrees C
At 25 degrees [H+][OH-] ALWAYS EQUALS 1E-14.
Finding pH from [H+] -log[H+]
Finding [H+] from pH 10^(-pH); antilog(-pH)
pH of a polyprotic acid if you are finding the pH ONLY, then you only have to do the first dissociation. the others are negligibly small
finding the K value for a reverse equasion K^-1; 1/K
MetallicOxide (like CaO) dissolved in water Metallic Hyrdoxide (like Ca(OH)2)
Non-metallicOxides (like CO2) dissolved in water Weak Acid! (like H2CO3)
Strong Acids new from last year (excludes HNO3, HCl, H2SO4) HClO4; HI; HBr; H2CrO4; HMnO4
Oxyacid acidic proton connected to O (HOCl) and the more Os, the more acidic
Organic Acids have carboxyl groups. (COOH)
Salts of Highly Charged Metals Produce acidic solutions; AlCl3 + 6H2O -> Al(H2O)6(3+) + 3Cl-; which then causes the rare instance of a H+ breaking off in Al(H20)6(3+) -> Al(H20)5(OH)(2+) + H+
Created by: JuanCoolKid08