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MBC - Lecture 46

Digestion and Absorption II, Nutrition I (Mock)

Lecture 46 Digestion and Absorption II
Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC) Concentration of bile acids at which micelles begin to form
As total bile acid concentration increases, the bile acid monomer concentration reaches ___ and levels off. critical micelle concentration (CMC)
At the CMC point micelles begin to form and the concentration ___ as bile acid concentration increases. increases
Bile acids are products of ___. cholesterol
___ property of bile acids are on both sides of the molecule. Detergent
The primary bile acids are: cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid (chenic acid)
Primary bile acids are synthesized in the ___, and are the “___”. liver, “good guys”
Primary bile acids secreted into the intestine are acted on by bacteria and turned into ___. secondary bile acids
The secondary bile acids are: deoxycholic and lithocholic
Lithocholic is toxic to the ___. liver
Ursodeoxycholic Acid Stereoisomer of chenodeoxycholic acid, used as therapy for cholesterol gall stones (primary biliary cirrhosis)
Bile acids are conjugated with ___ and ___ to lower ___. glycine and taurine, pKa
Monomeric, micellar lipids, and bile salts are in ___ equilibrium. dynamic
Bile salt micelles increase fatty acid ___, increasing the capacity of water to carry fatty acids. solubility
Fat absorption persists in the absence of ___ or ___. bile salts or pancreatic lipases
Complete system fat absorption is approximately ___%. 98% (>90%)
Bile salt deficiency has ___ fat absorption % than a complete system. lower
Pancreatic lipase deficiency has ___ fat absorption % then both complete and bile salt deficient. lower
Pancreatic lipase deficiency presents with: fat malabsorption, diarrhea, failure to thrive, and ravenous appetite
Total bile salt pool is ___-___g. 3-5g
The body uses ___-___g of bile salt per day. 20-30g
Bile salts are constantly ___ to meet the daily consumption from limited pool size. recycled
Reabsorption of bile salts occur in the ___. distal third of the ileum (terminal ileum)
Absorption of fat occurs primarily in the ___. duodenum.
If cholesterol levels are ___ and bile salt and lecithin levels are ___, then in a CMC zone. low, high
Stone formation occurs everywhere outside of ___, where cholesterol levels are ___ and bile salt and lecithin levels are ___. CMC zone, high, low
___ is not a good form of measurement in nutrition. Moles
Typical U.S. diet is ___% fat, __% carbohydrate, and ___% protein. 40%, 40%, 20%
Animal fat is ___% of fat consumed, with vegetable fat being the remaining ___%. 50%, 50%
1 kcal is ___ kJ. 4.2
Protein is ___ kcal per gram. 4
Fat is ___ kcal per gram. 9
Carbohydrate is ___ kcal per gram. 4
Ethanol is ___ kcal per gram. 7
Majority of energy consumption is by ___. basal metabolic requirement (BMR) or resting state expenditure
A highly active individual can have “physical work” expenditure ___ to their BMR. equal
Respiratory Quotient (RQ) Eliminated CO2 over consumed O2, mole ration of carbon dioxide expired to oxygen consumed
RQ ratio ranges from ___ to ___. 0.7 to 1.0
RQ ratio of 1.0 indicates ___ diet. carbohydrate diet (i.e. C6H12O2 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O equals RQ of 6/6 = 1.0)
RQ ratio of 0.7 indicates ___ diet. fatty acid diet (i.e. C16H32O2 + 23 O2 → 16 CO2 +16 H2O equals RQ of 16/23 = 0.7)
A balanced diet will have RQ ratio somewhere in the ___. middle
RQ can be used to calculate ___ (indirect calorimetry). BMR
BMR is proportional to ___. body surface area (BSA)
BSA is proportional to square-root of ___. height times mass
Baby requires ___ of energy and ___ of protein. 110 kcal per kg*day, 1.1 g per kg*day
Adult requires ___ of energy and ___ of protein. 40 kcal per kg*day, 0.8 g per kg*day
Pregnant individual requires ___ % more energy and protein. 15%
Lactating individual requires ___ % more energy and protein. 25%
Adult energy requirement decreases by ___% per decade after 20’s. 5%
Consume a mix of essential amino acids that matches the ___ of a human being. composition
Human milk contains an almost perfect dietary ___ composition. amino acid
Vegetarian diet deficiency of essential amino acids can be offset by ___ diets. complimentary (i.e. offset methionine deficiency of beans with wheat, and offset lysine deficiency of wheat with beans)
Fat consumed exceeding essential levels are stored in ___. adipose tissue
Carbohydrates consumed exceeding essential levels are stored in ___. adipose tissue
Proteins consumed exceeding neutral nitrogen balance have the ___ stored in adipose tissue and the ___ broken down to ammonia for degradation to urea. carbon skeleton, nitrogen
Essential fatty acid deficiency leads to defects in synthesis of ___ derived from the fatty acids. lipids
EFA deficiency presents with ___, and progressive problem in synthesis of ___ leading to death. rashes, higher order/complexity lipids
Essential Carbohydrates No essential carbohydrates
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Established empirically, determines nutritional requirement for 98% of population
The EAR does not account for 100% of the population because of ___. outliers (i.e. IBEM disorders)
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Defines the 98th percentile requirements
Adequate Intake (AI) If insufficient data to establish RDA, a best estimate or “adequate estimate” of RDI is made base off an assumed complete data set
Upper Limit Defines the nutrition limit with no toxicity in 98% of the population
Adipocytes produce ___ that binds to leptin receptors in the ___. leptin, hypothalamus
Leptin simultaneously stimulates the ___ of appetite and ___ of BMR. suppression, promotion
Leptin and ___ work together in the hypothalamus to decrease appetite and increase BMR. insulin
Antagonist of leptin is ___. ghrelin (“growling/ghrelin of stomach”)
Ghrelin stimulates in the hypothalamus the ___ of appetite and ___ of BMR. increase, decrease
OB gene (obese) codes for ___. leptin
DB gene (diabetic) codes for ___. leptin receptor, OB-R
Leptin has no known ___ with known proteins. homology
Leptin is expressed only by ___. adipocytes
Leptin functions as a “true hormone” and is secreted into the ___ to inform the brain of total body fat. bloodstream
Leptin receptor is a ___ segment. single transmembrane
The extracellular domain of OB-R resembles ___. cytokine receptors
In truncated (db/db) receptors, leptin ___ but the ___ is not transduced. binds, signal
Leptin binding OB-R activates ___. AMPK
Activation of AMPK by leptin phosphorylates ___, inactivating it. acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)
Inactivation of ACC leads to ___ concentration of malonyl-CoA. decreased
Malonyl-CoA inhibits ___. carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I)
Decreased inhibition of CPT I leads to ___ fatty acid β-oxidation. increased
Human obesity due to genetic leptin deficiency is ___. small minority
Possible human obesity maybe due to ___. leptin resistance
Insulin receptor knockout leads to increased ___, ___, and ___ serum levels. leptin, triglyceride, and insulin
Ghrelin is secreted by the ___ into the bloodstream when the stomach is ___. stomach, empty
Pro-Opiomelancortin (POMC) Releases α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), inhibiting food intake and stimulating energy expenditure
Cocaine/Amphetamine-Related Transcript (CART) Inhibits food intake and stimulates energy expenditure
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Stimulates food intake and inhibits energy expenditure
Agouti Related Peptide (AgRP) Stimulates food intake and inhibits energy expenditure
Body Mass Index (BMI) BMI = [Weight (kg)] / [Height (m) ²]
Malnourished BMI <18.5
Underweight BMI 18.5 to 20
Desirable BMI 20 to 25
Overweight BMI 25 to 30
Obese BMI >30
Morbidly Obese BMI >40
US Dietary Goals for Total Fat (i.e. 42% total fat): Decrease in total fat (30% total fat), but increase in polyunsaturated fats (“good” fat, heart healthy)
US Dietary Goals for Protein (i.e. 12% protein): Unchanged
US Dietary Goals for Total Carbohydrates (i.e. 46% total carbohydrates): Increase in total carbohydrates (58%), but increase in complex carbohydrates and natural sugars with decrease in refined/processed sugars
Malnutrtion Combined deficiency of energy and protein, also vitamins and minerals
Marasmus Severe protein and energy malnutrition
Kwashiorkor Protein deficiency leading to pitting edema (“Kwashi is squashy”)
Created by: emyang



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