Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
We do not share your email address with others. It is only used to allow you to reset your password. For details read our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

MBC - Lecture 45

Digestion and Absorption I (Mock)

QuestionAnswer
Lecture 45 Digestion and Absorption I
Salivary Glands Production of fluid and digestive enzymes for homogenization, lubrication and digestion of carbohydrates (amylase) and lipids (lingual lipase)
Stomach Secretion of HCL and proteases to initiate hydrolysis of proteins
Pancreas Secretion of HCO3, proteases, lipases, and amylase to continue digestion of proteins, lipids, and starch
Liver and Gall Bladder Secretion and storage of bile acids for release to small bowel
Small Bowel Final intraluminal digestion of foodstuffs, membrane digestion of carbohydrate dimers and specific absorptive pathways for digested materials
Large Bowel absorption of fluid and electrolytes and products of bacterial action in the colon
Three acid secretagogues are: acetylcholine, gastrin, histamine
Gastrin is a ___ hormone produced by G cells in the ___, ___, and ___. peptide, duodenum, pyloric antrum, and pancreas
Zollinger Ellison Syndrome Gastrinoma, hypergastrinemia in the pancreas
Cause for release of gastrin is: stomach distention, vagal nerve stimulation, products of protein digestion
Gastrin is secreted in the ___. bloodstream
“Big Gastrin” Gastrin-34
“Little Gastrin” Gastrin-17
“Mini-Gastrin” Gastrin-14
Pentagastrin Synthetic (only first 5 residues required to emulate effects of gastrin)
Gastrin binds to the ___/___ receptor on the ___ (ECL) cell. CCK2/gastrin, enterochromaffin-like
Gastrin secreted into the blood by the ___ binds and stimulates ECL cells to secrete ___. duodenum, histamine
Two important types of acid secretion blockers are: histamine (H2) receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors
Parietal cells have ___ receptors. histamine
Histamine from secreted by nearby ___ cells bind to the parietal cell receptors. ECL cells
Parietal cells pump ___ into the lumen of the body. protons
Histamine is an ___ for pumping of protons into the lumen of the stomach. agonist
Histamine receptor blockers: cimetidine (Tagamet), ranitidine (Zantac), famotidine (Pepsid)
Parietal cells have ___ pumps. proton
Proton pumps are ___/___ exchanging ATPases. K+/H+
Proton pump inhibitors: omeprazole (Prilosec), lansoprazole (Prevacid), esomeprazole (Nexium), pantoprazole (Protonix)
Three macronutrients: protein, carbohydrate, lipid
Pepsin A initiates ___. protein digestion
Pepsinogens are ___. zymogens
Pepsin A is secreted from ___ cells. chief
Zymogens in the pancreas are ___, preventing inappropriate enzyme cascades. inactive
Pancreatitis Abdominal pain/increased plasma amylase and lipase/stone in ampulla of vater, congenital tendency of trypsinogen activation and defective trypsin inhibitor
Polypeptides in the lumen are cleaved to ___ and ___ on the luminal surface. free amino acids and oligopeptides
Oligopeptides are cleaved to ___, ___, and ___ before entering the enterocyte. amino acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides.
Hartnup’s Disease (Neutral Aminoaciduria) SLC6A19 (neutral amino acid transporter) is defective, tryptophan and nicotinamide deficiency, pellagra-like presentation/cerebellar ataxia
Starch cleaved to ___ and ___ by α-amylase in the lumen. maltose and maltoriose
Maltose and maltoriose catalyzed by ___ produces glucose. maltase (enterocyte)
α-dextrin catalyzed by ___ produces glucose. oligosaccharidase (enterocyte)
Sucrose cleaved to ___ and ___ by sucrase in the enterocyte. fructose and glucose
Lactose cleaved to ___ and ___ by lactase in the enterocyte. galactose and glucose
Glucose is ___ transported out of the enterocyte. actively
Fructose leaves the enterocyte by ___. facilitated diffusion
Effects of injury on digestive-absorptive functions are not ___. uniform
Intestinal digestive-absorptive functions are ___ susceptible to mucosal injury. not equally
Fat absorption is ___% efficient over a wide range. 98%
Typical substrates of emulsification: long chain, triglycerides
Typical substrates of enzymatic hydrolysis and micellar solubilization: long chain, triglycerides, sterol esters, phospholipids
Typical substrates of only enzymatic hydrolysis: esterified short chain
Typical substrates of only micellar solubilization: vitamins A/D/E/K, cholesterol
___ produced during gastric lipolysis help emulsify fat in the stomach. Fatty acids
Acid Lipase Source: lingual glands/gastric mucosa, Action Site: stomach/small intestine
Pancreatic Lipase-Colipase Source: pancreas, Action Site: small intestine
Carboxyl Ester Lipase Source: pancreas/human milk, Action Site: small intestine
Phospholipase A2 Source: pancreas, Action Site: small intestine, main phospholipid lipase
Lipase cleaves triacylglycerol to ___ and ___. fatty acids and monoacylglycerol
Triglyceride lipases have different ___ specificity. positional
Acid lipase cleaves triglycerides to ___ and ___. fatty acid + diglyceride
Pancreatic lipase-colipase cleaves triglycerides to ___ and ___. fatty acids and 2-monoglyceride
Olestra Fatty-acylated sucrose with vitamins A/D/E/K, may cause abdominal cramping and loose stools, inhibits absorption of some vitamins and nutrients
Orlistat (Xenical) Pancreatic lipase inhibitor, saturated derivative of lipstatin (natural pancreatic lipase inhibitor), true steatorrhea/anal oil leaking
Pancreatic Carboxyl Esterase Catalyzes (back-up) hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides and primary enzyme in digestion of dietary cholesterol
Mechanism of Phospholipase A2: Hydrolyze C2 side chain
Newborn pancreatic lipase levels is ___% of adult levels. 2-5%
Breast milk provides additional ___. lipase
Pancreas in a newborn becomes active after ___ months. 3 to 6 months
Fecal content of pancreatic insufficient individuals (i.e. CF) contain ___% of fat intake. 50%
Steatorrhea Presence of excess fat in feces
Created by: emyang