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a&p chapter 4


anabolis builds large molecules from smaller molecules.
dehydration synthesis Water forms, and smaller molecules join by sharing atoms.
Carbohydrates are synthesized FROM? monosaccharides
Fats are synthesized FROM? glycerol and fatty acids
proteins are synthesized FROM? amino acids
nucleic acids synthesized FROM? nucleotides
catabolism breaks down larger molecules into smaller ones.
What happens in hydrolysis? A water molecule is split as an enzyme breaks the bond between two parts of a molecule. Hydrolysis breaks down carbohydrates INTO monosaccharides, fats INTO glycerol and fatty acids, proteins INTO amino acids, and nucleic acids INTO nucleotides
Hydrolysis breaks down carbohydrates into? Monosaccharides
Hydrolysis breaks down fats into? glycerol and fatty acids
Hydrolysis breaks down proteins into? amino acids
hydrolysis breaks down nucleic acids into? nucleotides
What do enzymes do? Enzymes control metabolic reactions, which include many specific chemical changes.
activation energy Enzymes make these reactions possible by lowering the amount of energy required to start these reactions.
substrate Each enzyme is specific, acting only on a particular type of molecule
Every cell contains hundreds of different enzymes, and each enzyme must recognize its specific substrate how does it do this? This ability of an enzyme to identify its substrate arises from the three-dimensional shape, or conformation, of the enzyme molecule.
An enzyme-catalyzed reaction substrate molecules +enzyme molecule-->enzyme-substate complex-->product (changed substrates)+ enzyme molecule
Almost all enzymes are what? almost all enzymes are proteins.
cofactor An enzyme that becomes active only when combined with a nonprotein component
what is energy is the capacity to chang something; it is the ability to do work.
Most metabolic processes use what kind of energy? chemical energy
How is chemical energy held and released? chemical energy is held in bonds between the atoms of molecules and is released when these bonds are broken.
Oxidation Cells burn glucose molecules in oxidation
cellular respiration three distinct series of reactions: 1. glycolysis 2. citric acid cycle 3. electron transport chain
what is required for cellular respiration glucose and oxygen
What are the products of cellular respiration co2, water and energy. Most of the energy is lost as heat, almost half is captured in the form of high-energy electrons that the cell can use to synthesize ATP. (adenosine triphosphate)
Cellular respiration begins with what? glycolysis
glycolysis means the breaking of glucose. glycolysis occurs in the cytosol (the liquid portion of the cytoplasm) DOES NOT REQUIRE OXYGEN. refered to as the anaerobic phase of cellular respiration
metabolic pathway A metabolic pathway consissts of a series of enzyme-controlled reaction leading to formation of a product.
DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID) Cells must have instructions for producing enzymes as well as other types of proteins. The sequences of building blocks of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules hod the information to manufacture proteins in the form of a genetic code.
genome A complete set of genetic instructions.
genes segments of the genome (complete set of genetic instruction)
In a nucleotide, the DNA base may be one of four types: 1. adenine (A) 2. thymine (T) 3. cytosine(C) 4. guanine (G)
DNA replication when a cell divides each newly formed cell must have acopy of the original cell's genetic information (DNA) so it will be able to synthesize the proteins to build cellular parts and metabolize. This takes place during the interphase the cell cycle
protein synthesis DNA provides the genetic instructions that a cell requires to synthesize proteins. Manufacturing proteins is a multistep, enzyme-catalyzed process.
Genetic code cells can synthesize specific proteins because the sequence of nucleotide bases the DNA of genes specifies a particular sequence of amino acid building blocks of protein molecule. The correspondence of gene and protein building block sequence is called gc
transcription The process of synthesizing RNA
Messenger RNA is the type of RNA that carries a gene's message out of the nucleus
RNA main location-cytoplasm :5-carbon sugar-ribose :basic molecular structure-single stranded :major functions-mRNA carries transcribed DNA information to cytoplasm and acts as a template for sythesis of protein molecules:tRNA carries amino acids to mRNA
DNA Main location-Part of chromosomes, in nucleus Double stranded Contains genetic code for protein synthesis;replicates prior to cell division
Created by: bjantti