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Chemistry Ch 1-3

For exam 1

QuestionAnswer
Chemistry the science that deals with the materials of the universe and the changes that these materials undergo.
3 steps in scientific method 1. State the problem and collect data. 2. Formulate hypothesis (possible explanation for the observation) 3. Perform experiments (to test hypothesis)
Theory a set of tested hypotheses that glues an overall explanation of some part of nature.
Law a summary of an observed behavior
measurement a quantive obervation
scientific notation a method for making very large or very small numbers more compact and easier to write.
units tell us what scale or standard is being used to represent the results of the measurement.
International System abreviation SI
What unit of measure is used for mass and what is its abreviation? kilogram / kg
What unit of measure is used for length and what is its abreviation? meter / m
What unit of measure is used for time and what is its abreviation? second / s
What unit of measure is used for temperature and what is its abreviation? kelvin / k
Name the symbol, meaning, and scientific notation (power of 10) for the prefix mega. M / 1,000,000 / 10 to the 6
Name the symbol, meaning, and scientific notation (power of 10) for the prefix kilo. k / 1000 / 10 to the 3
Name the symbol, meaning, and scientific notation (power of 10) for the prefix deci. d / 0.1 / 10 to the -1
Name the symbol, meaning, and scientific notation (power of 10) for the prefix centi. c / 0.01 / 10 to the -2
Name the symbol, meaning, and scientific notation (power of 10) for the prefix milli. m / 0.001 / 10 to the -3
Name the symbol, meaning, and scientific notation (power of 10) for the prefix micro. u / 0.000001 / 10 to the -6
Name the symbol, meaning, and scientific notation (power of 10) for the prefix nano. n / 0.000000001 / 10 to the -9
Measurements consist of both a _________ and a __________. number / unit
meter fundamental SI unit of length
volume amount of 3D space occupied by a substance
liter SI unit of volume
mass the amount of matter inside an object
kilogram SI unit of mass
significant figures the numbers recorded in a measurement
key for figuring Kelvin K = C + 273
Celcius to Farenheit F = 1.8(C) + 32
Farenheit to Celcius C = F - 32/1.8
Density amount of matter present in a given volume of substance.
key for density Density= mass/volume
Matter has ______ and occupies ________. mass / space
3 states of matter solid, liquid, and gas
solid rigid; has a fixed shape and volume
liquid has a definate volume but takes the shape of its container
gas has no fixed volume or shape; takes the shape and volume of its container
physical properties odor, color, boiling and freezing point, density, volume, and state.
chemical properties refers to a substance's ability to form new substances
physical change involves a change in physical properties but no change in fundamental components. (usually change of state)
chemical change change in fundamental components so it changes into different substances.
Element a substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical methods
compound a substance composed of a given combination of elements that can be broken down into those elements by chemical methods
mixture something that has variable composition
pure substance always has the same composition
2 types of mixtures homogeneous and heterogeneous
homogeneous a mixture that is the same throughout
heterogeneous contains regions that have different properties from those of oher regions (ex: muddy water)
distillation the method for seperating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on differences in the ease of vaporization of the components. (liquid to gas and back to liquid)
filtration method for seperating the components of a mixture containing a solid and a liquid.
Created by: cherishedcheri