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MBC - Lecture 43

Important Amino Acid Metabolites (Douglas)

QuestionAnswer
Lecture 43 Important Amino Acid Metabolites
Amino acids are also precursors of ___. neurotransmitters (catecholamine, serotonin, histamine)
Glutamate can be converted to: GABA, proline, and ornithine
Glutamate is a component of ___. glutathione
Glutathione is made in the ___. liver
___ serves as precursors for the head group of phospholipids (ethanolamine, choline). Serine
Serine carbon skeletons convert to ___, with sulfur transferred from ___. cysteine, homocysteine
___ provides the methyl group additions to ethanolamine to make choline. SAM
___ can serve as a neurotransmitter, primarily in inhibitor interneurons. Glycine
Loss of methyl by SAM in norepinephrine and serotonin produces ___ and ___, respectively. epinephrine, melatonin
Reactions involving methyl transfer by ___ are irreversible. SAM
___ B12 is the most stable form. Methylated
Homocysteinemia Elevated levels of homocysteine linked to cardiovascular and neurological disease, can involve B12 and folic acid deficiencies (reducing methionine synthetase activity)
Homocysteine can be reduced by reaction with ___ to form cystathionine. serine
Neural tube defects can be prevented with ___ supplements. folic acid
___ and ___ are precursors to neurotransmitters and pigments. Phenylalanine and tyrosine
Phenylalanine conversion can yield neurotransmitters ___, ___, and ___. dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine
Catechol A phenyl ring with two adjacent hydroxyl groups
___ is required at each hydroxylation step in phenylalanine conversion. Tetrahydrobiopterin
Adequate levels of ___ and ___ are needed in phenylalanine conversion. B12 and folate
Inhibitors of catecholamine and serotonin degradation work as ___ (increase dopamine levels). antidepressants (i.e. MOA inhibitor, COMT inhibitor)
Parkinson’s Disease Tremors and progressive disease, loss of cells that form dopamine from tyrosine, treated with L-dopa/monoamine oxidase (MOA) inhibitors/catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors
Ablinism Light pigmentation/mentally and neurologically normal/photosensitivity, defect in tyrosinase (tyrosine hydroxylase) where tyrosine cannot be converted to melanin
Formation of catecholamine from tyrosine is dependent on ___. biopterin
Tyrosine hydroxylase contains ___ and yields ___ (___). pyridoxal phosphate, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)
DOPA decarboxylase forms ___. dopamine
___ is converted to serotonin and melatonin. Tryptophan
Degradation of serotonin forms ___ (___), marker of serotonin deficiency. 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA)
Cysteine can be converted to ___, involved in neurodevelopment and conjugation with bile acids, and generation of ___. taurine, pyruvate
Tryptophan is the precursor to __% of the body’s pyridine nucleotides, remainder from diet. 50%
SAM donates methyl groups to lysine to form ___. carnintine
___ serves as a cofactor in catalyzing disulfide bond formation of cysteine –SH groups. glutathione
Created by: emyang