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PHT 100

chapter 1 part 1

Ancient Egyptians compiled lists of drugs known as Formularies Dispensatories Pharmacopeias
Greeks first took a scientific approach to medicine
Pharmacy comes from the ancient Greek pharmakon, meaning Drug Remedy
Hippocrates was Father of medicineā€
Hippocrates believed illness was physical rather than spiritual
Hippocrates Used scientific principles to Identify disease Determine the cause of disease Treat disease
Dioscorides (first century A.D.) Wrote De Materia Medica (On Medical Matters)
On Medical Matters Included information on Herbal remedies Usage Side effects Quantities Dosages Storage
expected drug costs in 2016 the annual cost could reach $500 bill., an 82% from 2006.
illnesses in the ancient days were thought to be caused by demons, magic & prayer were practiced
in ancient iraq/iran (mesopotania) plants, animals,& minerals were listed as medical agents
ebers papyrus was a list written in 1500 b.c. with recipes
ancient and today china and india dispenses herbal supplements like ginseng for energy
hippocrates had an oath the hippocratic oath "do no harm"
dioscorides was a greek physician who served in the roman army during the nero era
dioscorrides wrote his book on the effects and uses of herbs
galen was a greek physician of 130-200 a.d. who was considered the father of pharmacy
galen organized 6 centuries of medical and pharmaceutical knowledge and did animal testing.
galen's systematic classification of drugs for nearly a century went unchallenged
galenical pharmacy includes extracting active medicinals from plants as galen did
in europe & persian empire pharm] practices grew in the middle ages
the arabic are credited for drug dosages/formulations (pills, syrups, extracts)
the arabic are also credited for identifying pharmacists as licensed professional
the apothecary concept developed in western europe in the 11th & 12th centuries along with the creation of professional guilds based on the influence of ancient greek & arabic people
the guilds maintained monopoly & control of training & apprenticeship length
the pre-state pharmacy boards were guilds & sparked professional organizations in relation to it.
during the renaissance era (1350-1650 a.d.) the europeans questioned the greek/roman/arabic pharm] practices
europe had alchemy using chemicals, metallurgy, physics, astrological medicine, & spiritual mysticism
the alchemist would try to change common metal to gold and silver
in the new wolrd, pharmacists became chemists as well as botanists because drugs were made of herbs & spices
religious orders ran pharm]s & hospitals
monastic facilities for larger communities & meds for the poor
emergence of science& publishing advanced pharm] practice in 1600's
greek/latin classics were learned by scholars in the scientific revolution of the renaisance period
pharmacology & pharmacognosy was prompted by rudimentary testing & research determining the efficacy of botanical drugs.
each major european city had a pharmacopeia (drug list) which later went nat'l
martindales pharmacopeia is still a well respected drug reference material since 17 cent. great brittain
colonial pharmacists wore other hats (physicians, storekeepers, merchants, & druggist) then the pisitions later divided
revisions of u.s. pharmacopeia 1820 u.s. developed this pharmacopeia
the american pharmaceutical association was organized in 1852 for adulteration of imported drugs & focused on scientific basises
the nat'l association of retail druggists focused more on business
drugs today are highly complex with synthetic chemicals that are efficacious and potentially toxic
3/5 of pharm]s are community (retail)
independently owned pharm]s (especially in the metropolitan area) have less competition with those of retail
21% of pharm]s are independent
53% of pharm]s are chains
12% of pharm]s are food stores
8% of pharm]s are long term/clinical
6% of pharm]s are mail service
degrees of retail pharmacists include bachelor of science & doctor of pharm]
chain pharm]s can be nat'l or regional
the administrative decisions in pharm] chains are made corporately
independent pharm]s are community, owned, or oporated by one or more pharmacists
compounding is mostly done at independent pharmacies and some of those pharmacies have meerged into compounding pharmacies
uncommercially available (un)sterile drugs are prepared at compounding pharm]s
pharmacists owners independent pharm]s decides to practice pharm]
a franchise pharm] is an independent & retail pharm] combined
what varies in a franchise pharm] is the agreements involved
franchise grants exclusive use of company's name/rights to sell products to franchise owner/oporator of store
apothecaries are meds that are commonly health related products and services
medicine shoppe internet inc. is a franchise pharm] owned by cardinal health company
crdinal health company is the largest franchiser of independant pharm] in the u.s.
franchise pharm] care is more personalized than retail competitors
mail order pharm] is ran by centralized operation using automation & pharm] techs to mail large volumes of dispension daily
mail order pharm] gets low cost drugs to the insurance & customers (most insurance companies prefer)
Created by: frescah