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Chemistry Test 2-1

basics of chemistry test

the study of the ocmposition, structure, and properties of matter and the changes it undergoes chemistry
extend our ability to observe and make measurements instruments
study of most compounds containing carbon organic chemistry
study of the properties and changes in matter and their relation to energy physical chemistry
study of compounds not containing carbon inorganic chemistry
the type of chemistry we are studying inorganic
involved with identifying the composition of materials analytical chemistry
study of substances and processes in living things biochemistry
involves using math to understand the principles between chemical behaviors and to predict the properties of new compounds theoretical chemistry
list 4 uses of chemistry: -learning about ancient cultures -taking photographs -using fireworks -making sure our water is safe
any substance that has definite composition chemical
type of research used to increase knowledge basic
type of research used to solve problems applied
type of research that usually involes the production and use of products that improve our quality of life technological development
changing one element to another transmutation
purifying liquids through evaporation and condensation distillation
___developed in Europe around the time of the ___ modern chemistry, American Revolution
Modern chemistry was spurred on by develpment of better equipment such as the___ balance
the father of modern chemistry Lavoisier
the rapid combination of oxygen with a substance releasing heat and light combustion
showed that oxygen is involved in combustion and rusting Lavoisier
discovered that uranium gives off radiation Henri Becquerel
discovered new radioactive elements Marie and Pierre Curie
realized that radioactivve elements decayed into new elements Ernesst Rutherford and Frederick Soddy
how is transmutation carried out today? by bombarding atomic nuclei with accelerated atomic particles
the amount of 3-D space an object takes up volume
the measure of the amount of matter present mass
anything that has mass and takes up space matter
smallest unit of an element that keeps the properties of that element atom
a pure substance made of 1 kind of atom element
a substance that is made from the atoms of 2 or more elements that are chemically bonded compound
the smallest unit of an element or compound that keeps the properties of that element or compound molecule
characteristics used to distinguish between substances and to separate substances properties
property that depends on the amount of matter present extensive property
property that does not depend on amount of matter present intensive property
characteristics that can be observed or measured without change to the identity of the substance itself physical property
property that relates to a substance's ability to undergo changes that make it a different substance chemical property
changes in substances that do not involve a change in the identity of the substance physical change
changes in which one or more substances are converted into diffrent substances chemical change
states that the total amount of matter before and after a chemical reaction remains the same Law of Conservation of Mass
substances that react in a chemcial reaction reactants
substances formed in a chemical reaction products
change that occurs in the nucleus of an atom; tremendous amount of energy is given off; creates a new element nucleur change
the number of_________gives an element its identity protons
have definite volume and definite shape solids
have defintie volume and indefinite shape liquid
have indefinite volume and indefinite shape gases
high temperature state of matter in which the atoms of the substance lose electrons plasma
change in state from solid to gas sublimation
change in state from gas to solid deposition
__ is involved in both chemical and physical changes energy
states that although energy can be absorbed or released in a change, it cannot be destroyed Law of Conservation of Energy
energy is absorbed endothermic reaction
energy is released exothermic reaction
the composition of pure substances is the _____ same throughout
pure substances include ___ & ___ elements and compounds
blend of two or more kinds of matter, each of which keeps its own identity and properties mixture
uniform in composition, have same proportion of components throughout, also called solutions homogeneous mixture
not uniform in composition heterogeneous mixture
list 4 physical ways to separate mixtures: -filtration -decanting -centrifuge -distillation
elements can only be broken down by ____ nucleur means
an arrangement of the elements by way of increasing atomic number from left to right periodic table
# of protons in the nucleus atomic number
vertical column on the periodic table; contains elements with similar chemical properties because each has the same # of outer shell electrons group
horizontal row on periodic table; physical and chemical properties change as elements go from left to right; elements in same ___have same # of energy levels period
elements 51-71 lanthanide
elements 89-103 actinide
metals are found where on the period table to the left of the stairs
metalloids are found where on the periodic table? on or below the stairs (do not include polonium, aluminum, or astatine)
where are nonmetals found on periodic table? to the right of the stairs
where are noble gases found? in the last group
-conduct heat and electricity -have metallic luster -most are solids at room temp -malleable (can be hammered into thick sheets) -ductile (can be drawn into wires) -have high tensile strength (resist breaking) metals
poor conducter of heat and electricity mainly gases at room temp if solid, it is brittle nonmetal
characterics of metals and nonmetals all are solids at room temp less malleable than metals but not as brittle as nonmetals semiconducting properties metalloids
generally nonreactive gases at room temperature noble gases
4 noble gases used in lighting neon, krypton, argon, xenon
noble gas used in balloon making helium
noble gas that is radioactive and heaviest gas radon
liquid nonmetal bromine
liquid metal mercury
metal with highest melting point, used to make light bulbs tungsten
group _ metals are soft and can be cut with a knife 1
very hard metal chromium
very brittle metals manganese and bismuth
very malleable and ductile metals iron and copper
Created by: lovecamille018



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