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Psy 370 Final

the word "theory" is most closely associated with... science
a reliable test yields constant results
personality theorists have evolved different systems because all of the above
the variety of personality theories now is due to the different personal and philosophical perspectives that each theorist has of human nature
a useful theory should be parsimonious, meaning that it should be simple
a taxonomy is best defined as a class system
any test that correlates with future behaviors is said to have predictive validity
what is the proper place of theory within science? theories are tools used by scientists to give meaning to observations
a set of related assumptions from which, by logical deductive reasoning, testable hypotheses can be drawn is the definition of theory
the word personality comes from the latin word "persona" meaning theatrical mask
the two most important functions of a theory are its ability to generate research and organize observations
personality theorists who adopt a teological approach generally believe that people's behavior is a function of people's expectations of future events
the basic data of science are observations
descriptive research contributes to expanding a theory
a test that can accurately divide extraverts from introverts is said to have discriminant validity
statements formed in an if-then framework are most likely theories
the ultimate value of any theory depends on its usefulness
which of the following is not a dimension used by the authors to assess a theorist's concept of humanity order vs. disorder
what is the relationship between theory and observation? there is a mutual and dynamic interaction between them
psychologists generally agree that personality can be explained by several different theories
a taxonomy is best described as a classification system
the personalities, cognitive processes, developmental histories and social experiences of personality theorists help shape their theories. the discipline that deals with these pactors is called the psychology of science
a useful theory must be falsifiable, which means that it must be precise enough to suggest research that may either support or fail to support its major tenets
a theory can be a practical guide for a psychotherapist
part of the internal consistency of a theory is a set of operational definitions
after World War I, Freud made which revision to his theory of personality? he placed a greater emphasis on the aggression instinct
Bettelheim argued that psychoanalysis should be seen as a human science
the apprehension one feels while in the presence of a teacher is what Freud called neurotic anxiety
which of the following distinguishes sublimation from the other Freudian defense mechanisms? Sublimation is constructive to society
Freud believed that boys and girls have a different psychosexual development because of anatomical differences between the genders
which label best fits Freud's theory of personality comprehensive
according to Freud, ideas that slip in and out of awareness with greater or lesser degrees of ease are preconscious
the paintings and sculpture of Michelangelo best exemplify Freud's concept of sublimation
Freud believed that a girl's superego was not fully developed as a boy's supergo
among Freud's personal qualities were an intellectual curiosity and high moral courage
Freud suggested that the latency period was rooted in our phylogenetic endowment
Freud believed that instincts are characterized by all the following except depth
According to Freud, all people posses two major instincts or drives, they are: sex and aggression
the most basic freudian defense mechanism is repression
freud believed that the superego develops from the ego
a young man gets sexual gratification by kissing and aressing women's shoes. what statement best describes this situation, according to Freud the sexual object has been displaced
from a freudian perspective, psychological maturity might be characterized by minimal repression and maximal conciousness
the apprehension one feels while in the presence of a teacher is what Freud called neurotic anxiety
Freud abandoned this theory in 1897, the year after his father died seduction theory
a man goes into a gay bar and initiates a fight with a homosexual man as a result of his own unconscious homosexual impulses. this is an example of which Freudian defense mechanism? projection
asking a patient to verbalize thoughts, no matter how absurd, irrelevant, or embarrassing, is the freudian technique of free association
From a Freudian perspective, psychological maturity might be characterized by minimal repression and maximal consciouness
according to Freud, ideas that slip in and out of awareness with greater or lesser degrees of ease are preconcious
Freud believed that instincts are characterized by all of the following except depth
robin protects herself against the threat of change by constantly clinging to the objects and behaviors left from her early childhood. it thus appears that robin is relying primarily on which Freudian defense mechanism? fixation
an example of freud's notion of projection might be "i like him fine, but for some reaon he hates me"
Freud's three levels of mental life are unconscoius, preconscious and conscious
The aim of Freud's destructive instinct is self-destruction
Madison is frequently berated by his domineering employer. madison is too timid to confront his employer, but he takes out his frustration by mistreating his dog, children and wife. according to Freud, this is an example of displacement
Freud's notion of phylogenetic endowment refers to our ancestor's experiences that we inherit and that form part of our unconscious
According to freud, dreams have meaning on two levels. The more important level concerns the latent content
Which of these progressions is most consistent with psychoanalytic theory? punishment of a child's sexual behavior leads to suppression of sexual behavior, which leads to anxiety, which leads to repression
The use of Freudian defense mechanisms requires an expenditure of psychic energy
A young man gets sexual gratification by kissing and caressing women's shoes. what statement best describes this situation, according to Freud? The sexual object has been displaced
According to Freud, feelings of inferiority stem from the ego-ideal
Freud held that the secondary process functions through the ego
According to Freud, the ego's dependency on the superego results in moral anxiety
Freud held that the pain of anxiety is most likely to result in defensive behavior
According to Freud, a boy who feels strong hostility toward his father and sexual love for his mother is experiencing the simple male Oedipus complex
The id is primarily involved in which of the following activities, according to Freud? thumb-sucking behavior
Freud believed that a girl's superego was not as fully developed as a boy's superego
The use of Freudian defense mechanisms requires an expenditure of psychic energy
Among Freud's personal qualities were an intellectual curiosity and high moral courage
The "royal road to the unconscious" was thought by Freud to be dreams
Freud claimed that during the Oedipal period, a boy may feel sexual love toward each pearent
According to Freud, most of our menal life is unconscious
Freud believes that the superego develops from the ego
Freud believed that parapraxes, or "freudian slips" revealed unconscious intent
According to Freud, male and female persoanlity development is similar until the phallic stage
Adlerians believe that if style of life changes, early recollections can also change
Adler held that children who received love and affection from their parents typically develop strong social interest
Unlike Freud, Adler believed that narcissim is a form of neurosis
From an adlerian perspective, inconsistent behavior serves a single purpose
Which of the following statements best expresses Adler's concept of humanity People's interpretations of experiences are more important than the experiences themselves
Firstborn children, according to Adler, are likely to have intensified feelings of power and superiority
Vaciliating, procrastinating or behaving compulsively are examples of which adlerian safeguarding tendency? hesitating
Adler believed that the typical secondborn child develops moderate competitiveness
The ego is devided into objective and subjective aspects during this phase of childhood, according to Jung dualistic
In Jung's theory, the process of actualizing the various components of personality best describes extraversion
Jung called contents of the personal unconscious complexes
According to Jung, individuation, or self-reliazation is a common occurrence among young people
In Jungian psychology, a person primarily concerned with external matters such as financial success, competition, and material possessions would be extraverted
According to Jung, introversion is basically subjective
Jung's anarchic phase of childhood is charachterized by a chaotic and sporadic consciousness
Jung believed that the crucial time in life when one should move from an extraverted attitude toward an introverted one is middle life
In Jungian psychology, a withdrawn accountant with a strong interest in numbers and things and with little knowledge of his or her internal strivings would be classified as extraverted
Jung cited this as evidence for the existence of a collective unconscious big dreams
Like Freud, Jung believed that all humans are psychologically bisexual
According to Jung, when a personal experience corresponds to a latent primordial image, an archetype is activated
Jung called an inclination to act or react in a characteristic direction an attitude
According to Bowlby, both humans and other primates experience separation anxiety. The stage unique to humans is the detachment stage
klein extended Freud's psychoanalysis by emphasizing very early infancy
Mahler's principal concern was with the psychological birth of the child
Among the people that Klein psychoanalyzed was her son Erich
According to Klein, when the female Oedipus complex is successfully resolved, the little girl with develop positive feelings toward both parents
The aim Kleinian therapy is to reduce depressive anxieties and persecutory fears
Which object relations theorist strongly emphasized the process by which the self evolves? Kohut
Which issue became part of a bitter debate between Melanie Klein and Anna Freud during the 1920's and 1930's the idea of childhood psychoanalysis
Klein suggested that psychic defense mechanisms protect the ego against anxiety aroused by destructive phantasies
Horney asserted that the primary adverse influence inhibiting a child's potential for healthy development is the failure of the parents to love the child
Horney believed that people are governed by which two guiding principles? safety and satisfaction
Horney saw the tendency to humiliate others in order to protect oneself against humiliation as prestige
Feelings of isolation, Horney said, stem from an overly competitive society
In Horney's view, these are largely responsible for the development of basic anxiety and subsequent unhealthy interpersonal relations cultural conditions
Tami is proud of her intellectual skills and abilities, and she is pleased when others notice and admire her superior intelligence. These characterists reflect Horney's neurotic need for personal admiration
Horney believed that intrapsychic processes originate from interpersonal experiences
The major strength of Horney's theory is her comprehensive description of the neurotic personality
Parker is constantly belittling his own accomplishments. He also dreads asking others for favors. These behaviors illustrate Horney's neurotic need to restrict one's life within narrow borders
Which of these is the LEAST characteristic or people Horney regarded as neurotic? high self-esteem
For Horney, adult attitudes towards others are a product of individual character structure
According to Horney, aggressive people assume that other people are hostile
Karen Horney, like this psychologist, was the youngest of a middle-aged father, had older siblings who were favored by her parents, and felt unwanted and unloved Melanie Klein
According to Horney, neurotics differ from normals in that they experience severs, insoluble conflicts
Horney criticized Freudian theory on several accounts. Which of these was one of her major criticisms? Freud's ideas on feminine psychology
According to Horney, neurotic strategies differ from normal ones by their compulsivity
Horney recognized that some women may wish to be a man due to cultural privileges for men
Fromm held that our culture's current feelings of anxiety, isolation and powerlessness stem from the rise of capitalism
Fromm's most basic assumption is that personality must be understood in the light of history
In Fromm's productive strategy of attaining rootedness, people are weaned from the protective orbit of the mother or mother substitute
For Fromm, productive and caring creation reflects the need for transcendence
Fromm believed that a symbiotic relationship can be gratifying to the participants
Fromm used the term "necrophilia" to refer to any attraction to death
Omar is preoccupied with guilt about previous transgressions. Fromm would say that Omar is suffering from moral hypochondiasis
From held that the twin components of positive freedom are love and work
Fromm's human dilemma includes the notion that people have acquired reasoning ability yet have few animal instincts
Fromm referred to our human need for a guide or map to make our way through the world as a need for a frame of orientation
An energy transformation in Sullivanian theory can be best described as an action or behavior
Sullivan's Zodiac group served as a discussion group of professionals interested in the social sciences
The end of Sullivan's juvenile era is marked by the beginning of intimacy with a single chum
The Sullivanian period beginning at birth and continuing until the development of articulate speech is the infancy stage
Sullivan called the control of focal awareness that involves a refusal to see those things one does not wish to see selective inattention
Sullivan's concept of humanity includes the notion that people become humans through their interpersonal relations
According to Sullivan, lust interferes with security because genital activity is related to guild, shame and anxiety
Sullivan believed anxiety was different from other tensions because an infant has no capacity or means of reducing it
Sullivan's dynamism of intimacy grows out of which earlier need? tenderness
According to Sullivan, this is characterized by the feeling that one is living among one's enemies malevolent transformation
According to Erikson, what is necessary for proper adaptation? both syntonic and dystonic elemtns
Self-control and interpersonal control are the tasks of this stage of psychosocial development, according to Erikson early childhood
According to Erikson, teaching and instructing in the ways of a society or culture typically occur during the school age
Erikson believed that the Oedipus and castration complexes are not always to be taken literally
Erikson believed that oe's ability to adapt is dependent on a maximum ration of trust to mistrust
Erikson believed that a sense of readiness for danger and an anticipation of discomfort are adaptive aspects of mistrust
Erikson, unlike Jung and Adler, never repudiated Freud's ideas
Maslow claimed that when people who have satisfied their esteem needs are criticized or deprecated by others they retain their sense of self-worth
According to Maslow, metamotivation is the motivation of self-actualizing people
Maslow believed that all behavior has a cause
Maslow hypothesized that t the order of needs may be reversed in certain cases
According to Maslow, most people who seek therapy probably have the most trouble satisfying their love and belongingness needs
Maslow claimed that safety needs differ from physiological needs in that they cannot be overly satiated
According to Maslow, self-actualizing people are relatively well satisfied in their basic needs
For Maslow, B-love is unmotivated, expressive behavior
Maslow said that when cognitive needs are not satisfied, a person will become pathological
The most basic needs in Maslow's hierarchy are physiological needs
In studies of the relationship between self and the ideal self, Rogers found that psychologically healthy people show little discrepancy between self and ideal self
For Rogers, the ideal self is one's view of how one would like to be
According to Rogers, when therapists experience a "warm, positive and accepting attitude toward what is the client" they have unconditional positive regard for that client
Rogers called the tendency for matter (organic and inorganic) to evolve from simpler to more complex forms the formative tendency
Roger's early approach to therapy was most influenced by Otto Rank
Rogers claimed that incongruence exists when a person feels a discrepancy of self-concept versus ideals self
Rogers believed that healthy individuals evaluate their experience from the viewpoint of their organismic self
To Rogers, the basic ingredient of maladjustment is discrepancy of organismic vs. percieved self
Disorganization exists, Rogers said, when normal defenses do not reconcile experiences with view of self
Rogers's concept of humanity is basically positive and optimistic
According to May, a person's refusal to accept ontological guilt leads to neurotic or morbid guilt
As a young man, Rollo May, like Erik Erikson traveled through Europe as a wandering artist
Two basic concepts of existentialism are being-in-the-world and nonbeing
May said the neurotic anxiety is experienced when our values are transformed into dogma
May believed that healthy people unite love and will
For may, this is an altruistic kind of love agape
May was influenced by Soren Kierkegaard's view of anxiety as a struggle against nonbeing
May claimed that, to the extent that anxiety and guilt arise from our being-in-the-world, they are ontological
According to May, in North American society, sex is frequently confused with eros
According to may, ontological guilt is experienced by most people in one form or another
Allport believed that insight and humor may be aspects of self-objectification
Allport placed personal dispositions on a continuum from central to peripheral
Allport contended that adult motives are different from children's motives
According to Allport, present motives are functionally autonomous to the extent that they continually seek out new goals
Most people who knew Allport described him as reseved, prim and orderly. Allport would say that these description are in terms of central dispositions
Allport termed less intensely felt personal dispositions that guide action stylistic dispositions
Allport's definition of personality included the notion of personality as both dynamic and disorganized
Allport criticized older theories of personality for neglecting the normal psychologically healthy individual
Allport favored a view of personality that regards behavior as proactive
Allport's notion that people are capable of conscoiusly acting upon their environment in new and innovative ways that permit psychological grown is illustrated by proactive behavior
What evidence did Eysenck present on the biological bases of personality? identical twins have more similar personal than fraternal twins reared together
Which of the following statements would NOT be generally acceptable to factor and trait theorists? personality traits are mostly determined by envirtonmental factors
Which trait theoriest was a native of Germany, but lived and worked for much of his professional life in England and at the University of London? Eysenck
According to Eysenck's findings, cold, nonconformind and aggressive personalities tend to score high on psychoticism
McCrae and Costa (1996) objected to earlier personality theories as over-relying on clinical events and armchair speculation
Some people are vulnerable to organic and psychiatric illness because they have a genetic or acquired weakness that predisposes them to the illness. this explanation for an illness is what Eysenck called the diathesis-stress model
Which of the following is NOT one of the five train factors in the five-factor model? psychoticism
Which term best describes the "acquired personality structures that develop as people adapt to their environments"? characteristic adaptations
In general, research testing the five-factor model across cultures has revealed that traits appear to be consistent in most countries of the world
The essence of basic tendencies is their basis in biology and their stability over time and situation
The systematic withholding of reinforcement previously contingent upon a response until the probability of the response diminishes to zero is Skinn'er definition of extinction
Concerning drives, Skinner said that they are responses to deprivation or satiation
Skinner's principal contribution to psychotherapy was as a writer whose ideas have influenced the behavior therapy moement
When operant conditioning is used to shape complex behiavor such as playing a piano, reinforcement is applied through successive approximations
Elms believes that Skinner's midlife crisis ended with his writing of Walden Two
Which of the following is NOT a principal characteristic of science, according to Skinner? Science explains behavior
Unlike punishment, reinforcement gives information as to desired behavior
Fixed-ration, variable-ration, fixed-interval, and variable-interval are examples of intermittent schedules
Skinner believed that passive resistance is most likely to be used after escape and revolt have failed
Grant has been planning a trip to Italy after he graduates with a degree in art. How would Skinner explain Grant's planning? Grant's planning behavior is positively reinfocing
In Bandura's view, self-efficiacy is most likely to be increased when one successfully performs a difficult task
According to Bandura, the four core features of human agency are intentionality, _______, self-reactiveness,and self-reflectiveness forethought
Basically, Bandura views humans as cognitive animals
In order for observational learning to lead to new response patterns, bandura claims that those patterns must be symbolically represented in memory
Erick is confident that he has the skills and abilities to be an excllent professional baseball player. however, he is uncertain ehether he will be offered a job as a player. Thus according to Bandura, he has high efficacy expectations and low outcome expectations
Harrison, a professional photographer, is dissatisfied with his latest work, judging several pictures as substandard by his own criteria. Bandura would say that harrison will probably withhold reward for substandard performance
a notable feature of Bandura's theory is its high internal consistency
Bandura's treatment technique that involves the extinction of anxiety or fear through self-or therapist-induced relaxation is systematic desensitization
Mischel and Shoda's cognitive-affective personality system predicts that a person's behavior will change from one situation to another, but in a meaningful manner
In their concepts of humanity, both Rotter and Mischel have more telological than causal explanations of behavior
Mischel and Moore (1973) Found that children who were encouraged to imagine real rewards whil viewing pictures of rewards could not wait as long for the rewards as could children who were merely exposed to pictures of the rewards
Mischel and colleagues (2001) tested the person-situation interaction by researching the conditional self-evaluation. they found: interactionist or conditional self-evaluations tend to lead to less extreme emotional reactions
Rotter's most basic category of needs, in the sense that other needs are learned in relationship to it, is psychical comfort
Unlike Skinner, Julian Rotter contended that an adequate theory of human behavior must be built on people's expectations of the future
Mischel's early research led him to believe that behavior is mostly a function of the situation
According to Rotter, individuals who set their goals too high engage in avoidant behavior becuase of frustruation
Rotter distinguished between internal reinforcement and external reinforcement. Internal Reinforcement is determined by subjective perceptions of an even'ts value
Mischel believes that people regulate their own behavior through self-made goals and consequences
Mischels' consistency paradox is based on his notion that both laypeople and professional psychologists see behavior as consisten, whereas research suggests that it is inconsistent
Rotter defined maladaptive behavior as behavior that fails to move a person closer to a desired goal
The more long-range goal of Rotter's approach to psychotherapy was the change in the patient's orientation to life
According to Mischel, behavior is determined by the interaction of person variables with situational variables
Rotter's basic prediction formula is most useful when making specific predictions
According to Rotter, four variables and their interactions must be analyzed to ensure accurate predictions. They include all the following EXCEPT law of effect
Which of the following is NOT one of Mischel and Shoda's cognitive-affective units?! sense of self efficacy
Rotter's most basic category of needs, in the sense that other needs are learned in relationship to it, is physical comfort
At the core of Rotter's personality theory is his emphasis on anticipated goals
"a generalized expectancy held by an individual that the word, promise, oral or written statement of another individual or group can be relied on" is Rotter's definition of interpersonal trust
Kelly believed that psychologically healthy people are similar to competent scientists
According to Kelly, the minimum number of events required to form a construct is three
Kelly held that nonscientists make observations and draw conclusions much in the same way as scientists
The purpose of Kelly's Rep test is to learn how clients construe significant people in their lives
According to Kelly, people's processes will be psychologically similar if these people construe events in a similar manner
Kelly called the transparent templates or patterns that help us make sense out of the world personal constructs
Psychological disorders, Kelly said, result from personal constructs that are too permeable or too inflexible
All women are humans: all humans are mammals: all mammals are animals. This statement expresses Kelly's organization corollary
Kelly stated that people belong to the same cultural group because they construe their experiences in the same way
kelly's theory of personal construct assumes all BUT: an unchanging world
Created by: 596686254