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Nature of Matter-Jes

Basic Matter

What is the first job of a biologist? To understand the chemistry of life
What is the basic unit of matter? The atom
Define an atom. It is the smallest particle that maintains the properties of its element
What are the subatomic particles that make up the atom. Protons, neutrons and electrons
What is the mass and charge on a proton; where is it located? positively charged; located in the nucleus Mass of 1
What is the mass and charge on a neutron; where is it located? No charge; located in the nucleus; Mass of 1
What is the mass and charge on a electron; where is it located negative charge; constant motion in the space surrounding the nucleus 1/1840 mass of proton
Where is the nucleus located and what holds it together? At the center of the atom and a strong nuclear force holds protons and neutrons
Why do electrons remain outside the nucleus? Because of the energy of their motion.
What is an element and how many are known? A pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom; over 100 known
About how many elements are found in living organisms? 24
What does an element's atomic number represent? The number of protons
What are isotopes? Atoms of the same element that differ in the number of neutrons.
How are isotopes represented? By their name + their mass number
How is atomic mass calculated? By the weighted average of the mases of an element's isotopes
Do isotopes of an element have the same chemical properties? Yes because they habe the same number of electrons.
Since radioactive isotopes nuclei are unstable and break down at a constant, how can this be used? This allows geologists to determine age of rocks and fossils and can be used to follow movement "tracers" in organisms to diagnose problems.
What is a chemical compound? substance formed by chemical combination of 2 or more elements in definite proportion.
Are physical and chemical properties of elements the same as their elements? No Example Hydrogen and oxygen to make water. Sodium and chlorine to make table salt
What are the two main types of chemical bonds? Ionic and Covalent bonds
How is an ionic bond formed? When one or more electrons are transfered from one atom to another, thus creating positive and negative ions which have a strong attraction for each other and form crystals structures
How is a covalent bond formed? Some electrons prefer to share electrons so that electrons travel in orbits of both atoms,and can make single, double or triple bonds
What is a molecule? A molecule is smallest unit of most compounds like H covalent bond with O
What makes Van der Waals Forces? In sharing electrons in covalent bonds, some atoms have stronger attraction for the electrons creating a partial + or - charge on one part of molecule and this can cause intermolecular forces of attraction between the molecules
What organism uses this force to climb smooth vertical surfaces? The geckos
Created by: jescar27