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# Statistics

### Introduction to Statistics

Where did it come from? Source
A collection of observations. (Measurements,counts,survey) Data
Planning studies, obtaining data, organizing, summarizing, presenting, analyzing,interpreting ,drawing conclusions. Statistics
The complete collection of all individuals to be studied. Population
A subset of a population. Sample
A collection of data from all members of a population (Continuous study) Census
What is it? Context
How was it collected? Sampling method
Any measure if an entire population. Parameter
Any measure of a sample. Statistic
Measurement, Count Quantitative
Label Qualitative
Continuous-measurements Discrete-Counts Quantitative
Neither Qualitative
Nominal, Ordinal Qualitative
Interval, Ratio Quantitative
No order Nominal
Natural order Ordinal
Differences meaningful, ratios not Interval
Differences and ratios are meaningful Ratio
The respondents themselves decide whether to be included. Voluntary response sample
When subjects are asked for information and they give you their desired information, but not exact information. It's better if you did it yourself. Reported Results
Conclusions should not be based on samples that are too small. It's not representing as a whole. Small Sample
Not worded carefully, worded to elicit a desired response. Worded, Loaded question
100% of some quantity is not ALL of it, exceeding it is often not justified. Percentages
No treatment, observe a sample for characteristics. Observational
Treatment & observe its effects Experimental
People who don't report Missing Data
Someone either refuses to respond to a survey question or is unavailable. Nonresponse
Some parties with interests to promote will sponsor studies. Self-Interest Study
Percentage of Take the percent divide it by 100 and multiply by "of" that number
Fraction to percentage Divide top into bottom
Decimal to percentage Multiply by 100
Percentage to decimal Divide decimal by 100
"N" subjects is selected in such a way that every possible sample of the same size n has the same chance of being chosen. Simple random sample
selected in such a way that each individual member in the population has an equal chance of being selected. Random sample
We select some starting point and then select every kTH element in the population. Systematic sampling
Subdivide the population into at least two different subgroups so that subjects with the same subgroups share same characteristics, then draw a sample from each subgroup Stratified sampling
Divide the population area into sections, then randomly select some of those clusters, and then choose all the members from those selected clusters. Cluster sampling
Data are observed, measured,& collected at one point in time. Cross-sectional study
Data are collected from the past by going back in time. Retrospective
Data are collected in the future from groups sharing common factors. Prospective
Subjects are assigned to different groups through a process of random selection. Try to find a randomized way of choosing your sample. Randomization
subjects doesn't know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or a placebo. Blinding
Untreated, Unaffected. Placebo
Subjects didn't know and doctors didn't know either. Double blinding
when you are not able to distinguish among the effects of different factors. Usually unwanted. Confounding
Difference between a sample result and the true population result; such an error results from chance sample fluctuations. Sampling error
When the sample data are incorrectly collected, recorded or analyzed. Nonsampling error
Created by: BrindelHolmes