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Chemistry chapter 12

solvent solution component that determines the state of matter of the solution (present in greatest amount)
solute substance dissolved in solvent
molarity mol solute/volume solution
1 ppm 1mg/L
1ppb 1mu g/L
1ppt 1nano g/L
molarity varies with temperature if temp increases, then molarity decreases
molality mol solute/mass solvent, not temp dependent
mole fraction xi is mol component i/total mols of solution
mole percent mole fractionx100
ideal solution no net energy change and change in volume=0
nonideal solution volume is less than sum of volumes
ion-dipole forces attraction of water dipoles for cations and anions
miscible liquids that mix in all proportions
saturated when equilibrium between undissolved solute and solution, solute has attained its maximum value
solubility concentration of the solute
unsaturated any solution containing less solute than can be held at equilibrium
ionic compound solubility 95% of ionic compounds have solubilities that increase significantly w/increasing temp
solubility curve graph of solubility as function of temperature
supersaturated if a solution can be cooled without crystallization occurring
Henry's law S=kPgas, increasing the pressure of a gas in contact w/saturated solution increases the number of molecules per unit volume in gas
colligative properties properties that depend on # of solute particles present but not on the identity of solute
Raoult's law Psolv=xsolv*Pat temp solv, vapor pressure of the solvent above a solution is the product of the vapor pressure of solvent and the mole fraction of the solvent in solution
Raoult's law strictly followed only in an ideal solution. not limited to the solvent if a solution also contains volatile solutes
fractional distillation use constant pressure and boil a solution in n aparatus that does vaporizations and condenstations at a constant temp.
Kf molal freezing point depression constant and molal
Kb boiling point elevation constant
Semipermeable membranes sheets or films of amaterial containing a network of microscopic holes or pores through which small solvent molecues can pass, but larger solute molecules cannot
Osmosis net flow of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrance from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration
osmotic pressure pressure required to stop osmosis
pi osmotic pressure in atm
pi=MRT (blank)
isotonic solution hqving same osmotic pressure as body flluids
hypertonic solution has higher pressure than red blood cells
hypotonic solution has less pressure than red blood cells
can't Hoff Factor (i) used to modify equations for colligative properties by accounting for the presence of ions in solution
heterogeneous mixture sand-water mix
colloids mixtures that lie between true solutions and suspensions
colloid dispersion in an appropriate medium of particles ranging in size from 1 nm to 1000 nm
tyndall effect properties of colloids are diff from true solutions and suspensions. sometimes appear milky/cloudy and scater beams of light passing through them
coagulate/precipitate high concentration of an electrolyte can cause this
electrodialysis process facilitated by the attractions of ions to an electrode having the opposite charge
Created by: jlvon425