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Ch.6 -9

Radiation Protection

according to target theory, master molecule can be damaged by which of the following direct and indirect
with regard to radiation exposure which part of the gastrointestinal tract is most severely affected small intestine
when oxygen is present the probability of biologic damage does which of the following increases with low LET
those cells that are most sensitive to radiation include which of the following (3) those that reproduce most quickly and that are most immature, those that have the longest mitotic cycle, those that have the least degree of specialization
for radiation protection high LET radiation is of greatest concern when a radionuclide has been implanted ingested injected or inhaled because... the potential exists for irreparable damage because of multiple strand breaks in DNA are possible
what is the chance of master molecules being struck by radiation same as any other molecule
which are classified as high LET radiation alpha particles, low-energy neutrons
which action of ionizing radiation is most harmful to the human body indirect
according to target theory where is master molecule located in the nucleus
which molecules in the body are most commonly directly acted on by ionizing radiation to produce molecular damage through indirect water
what can result from radiation interfering with cell function by damaging the nucleus all of above, instant cell death, reproductive death, interference of cell function
the most radiosensitive cell leukocytes
most radiosensitive out of liver, urinary system, gonads and nerve cells gonads
a one break effect to a chromosome that doesn't reattach is called terminal deletion
the last most severe stage in ARS involves which of the following death
ionizing radiation over 50Gy (5000Rad) death will result from which of the following leakage of small blood vessels in brain
high doses of ionizing radiation in utero can cause a variety of illnesses and abnormalities; in regard of radiation doses normally used in diagnostic exams; when is the most radiosensitive trimester 1st trimester is most radiosensitive
most radiation induced skeletal abnormalities most frequently occur in an embryo fetus when weeks 3-20
LD 50/30 refers to what 50% of exposed population will survive after 30 days
what is the relationship of radiation and dose in a threshold dose response relationship radiation response is directly proportional to increased dose
what is an extra measure of caution built into diagnostic radiation protection standards assume biologic response is directly proportional to increased dose
about 2/3 of all biologic damage is caused by ___ from radiolysis of water OH*
what is the definition of an early or acute effect of radiation exposure identifiable biologic response to radiation with in minutes, hours, days or weeks of the exposure
how long after whole body exposure to a dose of 1 Gy (100 Rad) does the prodromal stage of acute radiation syndrome begin? within hours
what type of cancer has increased dramatically in children exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident thyroid
what is the function of hematopoietic system manufactures the various types of cells in blood
at what dose does hematopoietic syndrome begin 1 Gy (100 Rad)
what generally happens to bone marrow when it is exposed to a radiation dose of less than 1 Gy (100 rad) short term damage with recovery within a few weeks or months
which of the following types of cells develop from single precursor cell the pluropotential stem cell lymphocytes and granulocytes, thrombocytes and erythrocytes and platelets
what is the length of time between radiation exposure and death from a cerebrovascular syndrome from hours up to 2 to 3 days
what impact does exposure to ionizing radiation have on naturally occurring genetic effect radiation exposures increase the likelihood of naturally occurring genetic effects
when exposed to radiation as a part of their educational experience 18 year old students should not exceed an effective dose limit of ___ annually 1 msv (.1rem)
the dose response relationship to approximate the biologic response to an ionizing radiation dose in which of the following linear non threshold dose response relationship
cancer and genetic defects are stochastic or nonstochastic effects stochastic
lethal dose of ionizing radiation for humans is usually given as or is probably most likely to be LD 50/60
in a linear or nonlinear threshold dose response relationship which of the following is true of the biologic response to radiation it may not occur at low doses
how long does prodromal stage of ARS last few hours to several days
which of the following is true biologic damage begins with ionization produced by various types of radiation
white blood cells are known as leukocytes
symptoms of manifest stage of GI syndrome all of the above
chromosomal damage can be caused by both low and high radiation dose, true or false TRUE
radiation dose affects mean survival time in what way as dose increases, mean survival time decreases
when cells are damaged by low doses of ionizing radiation what is a common result of the damage cell repair
what is most radiosensitive component of a cell DNA
irradiation of which of the following anatomical areas will affect the production of white blood cells bone marrow
how can radiation damage to the DNA molecule of a germ cell affect the future generations of an individual mutations may occur
which of the following have an impact on the effect of a cell (3) the amount of radiation delivered; the rate of radiation delivered; and the oxygenation of a cell
which of the following wouldn't occur from a significant exposure to radiation immunity to radiation damage
when radiation exposure causes hemapoietic death what is the main reason why persons die? bone marrow destruction
reddening of the skin due to radiation damage is called what erythema
gastrointestinal syndrome begins at what dose 6 Gy
measurement of the amount of radiation necessary to produce necessary skin reaction called skin erythema dose
prodromal stage occurs with ARS hematopoietic syndrome, gastrointestinal syndrome, and cerebrovascular syndrom
blood cells that help stop blood hemorrhaging platelet cells
most radiosensitive vital organs system in human beings is hematopoietic
embryo fetus sensitivity to radiation decreases over time
what are some measurable late biologic damages cataracts, leukemia, genetic mutations
bone marrow transplants used to help those who are exposed to what dose 5 Gy (500Rad) of ionizing radiation
single radiation exposure of ___ to ovaries or testes will result in temporary sterility 2 Gy
hematopoietic syndrome ranges from what dose levels in rads 100-1000 rads
which statements regarding laws of radio sensitivity (bergonic and Tribondeau) are considered correct younger tissues are more radiosensitive; mature cells most radio resistant; when metabolic activity increases so is radio sensitivity (all of above)
which of the following are radiosensitive spermatogenia and lymphocytes
central nervous system death requires rads of 5000
which is most likely to have longest latency period malignancy
another name for stochastic effects statistical response
least sensitive blood cells erythrocytes
primary long term effects of radiation observed in radium dial painters bone cancer
equivalent dose formula is absorbed dose times the weighting factor
what is the recommended cumulative whole body effective dose equivalent limit age in yrs x 10 smv (1000mrem)
what is recommended NCRP (report no 116) annual effective dose limit for a 40 yr old radiographer 50 msv
radiation can induce genetic damage by which of the following means altering the essential base coding sequence of DNA
what do atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, marshal islanders and nuclear radiation victims of Chernobyl have in common some of all groups were exposed to doses of ionizing radiation sufficient to cause ARS
which of the following are example of chromosomal two break effects interstitial deletion and inversion
put in order from least sensitive to most sensitive: skin, stomach, liver stomach, liver, skin
what is the dose curve that best estimates risk associated with low dose from low LET linear quadratic nonthreshold
which of the following is most harmful, small dose over long period of time or large dose all at once large dose to whole body at one time
effective dose is calculated by dose x tissue weighting factor
what are stochastic effects (definition) non threshold, randomly occurring biologic somatic changes
the doubling dose is defined as the amount of radiation it takes to double the number of spontaneous mutation s if no radiation were given at all
characteristics of nonstochastic effects of radiation include (3) they have predictability; have a threshold; severity is directly related to dose
when biologic effects from ionizing radiation demonstrated the existence of a threshold and the severity of that damage increases as a consequence of increased absorbed dose the events are considered deterministic
most diagnostic procedures result in equivalent doses less than 0.01 Sv (1 rem)
if someone is exposed to a 1 Gy (100rad) whole body dose of ionizing radiation, what will be the result illness, but death will not normally occur
what is the function of the hematopoeitic system manufacturing the various types of cells in blood
most of the information available to researchers of the dose response relationship comes from which of the following studies of animals
damage to DNA would cause what two late effects genetic defects and malignant disease
muller experiemented with fruit flies true or false TRUE
LET is defined as the rate at which the energy of radiation was transferred to tissue, directly proportional to RBE
a response that has a level that is reached below which no effect is observed threshold
is the dose response curve for overall human response to a radiation dose linear quadratic nonthreshold
least likely to occur from low dose brain necrosis
as LET goes up RBE does what goes up
the least likely stage to cause death promodal
symptoms of high doses of radiation nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea
death from the hematologic syndrome occurs from what two symptoms infection and dehydration
has the shortest latent period of 6-12 hrs CNS syndrom
form of effect from radiation that causes irratibility of the skin radiodermatitis
accessory structures of the skin (4) sensory receptors, hair follicles, sebaceous gland and sweat gland
skin effects have what type of dose repsonse curve linear threshold
use very low kVp of 10-20 kVp Grenz rays
Oogonia multiply only in the fetus
this type of aberrations are not very detectable single aberration
radiation doses in the early days were determined by what type of testing blood tests
stochastic effects do or do not exhibit a threshold do not exhibit a threshold
which organ is the most sensitive between the breast, thyroid, liver, colon, lung liver
which is most damaging lethality
cancer cells differ from normal cells in what two ways an incrased amount of chromatin, an incrased ration of nuclear material to cytoplasm
the weakest area of understanding genetics
the most devastating respnse to radiation is death
the series of events that follow a large radiation exposure and always leads to death is called acute radiation lethality
the ___ is the term used to describe the clinical expression of organ damage manifest illness
medium doses of radiation cause erythema depending on these three things... individual's radiosensitivity; dose rate; and size of field irradiated
the preferred methods of expressing the risk of cancer induction from radiation exposures are absolute and relative risks
the branch of medicine dealing with the distribution and determinants of a disease ina population is called epidermiological studies
what is a type of radiation damage associated with the eyes cataracts
the dose for temporary sterility in either sex is 200 rad
it is hard to associate a certain late response with a previous radiation exposure history, which is not a risk estimate...absolute risk, observed risk or relative risk observed risk
the last atomic bomb, the bomb that ended WWII was the bomb at Nagasaki
leukemia follows what type of dose relationship curve linear quadratic non-threshold curve
based on data from the Abomb survivors, the laten period for leukemia was 5-7 years
what is the main cause of the incrase in leukemia for radiologists in the 20s - 40s lack of radiation protection methods
skin effects follow a ___dose response relationship linear threshold
___'s genetic effect study on mice determined that doses administered over a long period showed less effecgts genetically than 1 large dose Russell
which cancer appears to have a threshold skin cancer
Created by: daybreak5