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# AP Chem Stack #1

### INTRO

Question | Answer |
---|---|

Unit Conversions / Factor-Label | Unit conversions are made using factor-label method (dimensional analysis): |

mega (M) | 10^6 |

kilo (k) | 10^3 |

deci (d) | 10^-1 |

centi (c) | 10^-2 |

milli (m) | 10^-3 |

micro (μ) | 10^-6 |

nano (n) | 10^-9 |

pico (p) | 10^-12 |

Celsius to Kelvin Conversion | °C + 273 = K no negative temperatures in Kelvin = absolute scale |

Kelvin to Celsius Conversion | K - 273 = °C negative temperatures are possible |

Kelvin scale | no degrees are used MUST be used with gas laws to avoid negative volumes, pressures and moles. |

Fundamental quantities | Length, mass, time, temp, moles, amperes |

Derived quantities | velocity, volume, area, density, joules |

Significant figures - addition and subtraction | The result of a sum or the difference has the SAME # of decimal places as the least precise measurement used. |

Significant figures - multiplication and division | The result of a product or quotient has the same number of sig figs as the least precise measurement used in calculating the result. |

Exact numbers | Derived from definition or from a direct count... contains no uncertainty (infinite significance). |

Scientific notation (sig figs) | The number of sig figs is equal to the number of digits to the left of the x 10^? Example 34.5 x 10^2 .... 3 sig figs |

Intensive Properties (definition) | A physical property that is NOT dependent upon the amount of a substance present. |

Intensive Properties (examples) | Temperature, density, melting and boiling points, ductility, specific gravity, and viscosity |

Extensive Properties (definition) | A physical property directly proportional to the size or amount of a substance. |

Extensive Properties (examples) | Mass, volume, number of moles, particle number, energy, enthalpy, and entropy. |

Heat Capacity | The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an amount of a substance by 1 |

Fundamental quantities | Length, mass, time, temp, moles, amperes |

Derived quantities | velocity, volume, area, density, joules |

Significant figures - addition and subtraction | The result of a sum or the difference has the SAME # of decimal places as the least precise measurement used. |

Significant figures - multiplication and division | The result of a product or quotient has the same number of sig figs as the least precise measurement used in calculating the result. |

Exact numbers | Derived from definition or from a direct count... contains no uncertainty (infinite significance). |

Scientific notation (sig figs) | The number of sig figs is equal to the number of digits to the left of the x 10^? Example 34.5 x 10^2 .... 3 sig figs |

Intensive Properties (definition) | A physical property that is NOT dependent upon the amount of a substance present. |

Intensive Properties (examples) | Temperature, density, melting and boiling points, ductility, specific gravity, and viscosity |

Extensive Properties (definition) | A physical property directly proportional to the size or amount of a substance. |

Extensive Properties (examples) | Mass, volume, number of moles, particle number, energy, enthalpy, and entropy. |

Heat Capacity | The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an amount of a substance by 1 degree Celsius. Extensive Property. |

Heat Capacity Units | Joules/degrees Celsius |

Specific Heat | The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius |

Specific Heat Units | Joules/gram/degree Celsius |

Heat Capacity and Specific Heat + or - | The sign will be negative if energy is lost and positive if energy is gained. |