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# AP Chem Stack #1

### INTRO

Unit Conversions / Factor-Label Unit conversions are made using factor-label method (dimensional analysis):
mega (M) 10^6
kilo (k) 10^3
deci (d) 10^-1
centi (c) 10^-2
milli (m) 10^-3
micro (μ) 10^-6
nano (n) 10^-9
pico (p) 10^-12
Celsius to Kelvin Conversion °C + 273 = K no negative temperatures in Kelvin = absolute scale
Kelvin to Celsius Conversion K - 273 = °C negative temperatures are possible
Kelvin scale no degrees are used MUST be used with gas laws to avoid negative volumes, pressures and moles.
Fundamental quantities Length, mass, time, temp, moles, amperes
Derived quantities velocity, volume, area, density, joules
Significant figures - addition and subtraction The result of a sum or the difference has the SAME # of decimal places as the least precise measurement used.
Significant figures - multiplication and division The result of a product or quotient has the same number of sig figs as the least precise measurement used in calculating the result.
Exact numbers Derived from definition or from a direct count... contains no uncertainty (infinite significance).
Scientific notation (sig figs) The number of sig figs is equal to the number of digits to the left of the x 10^? Example 34.5 x 10^2 .... 3 sig figs
Intensive Properties (definition) A physical property that is NOT dependent upon the amount of a substance present.
Intensive Properties (examples) Temperature, density, melting and boiling points, ductility, specific gravity, and viscosity
Extensive Properties (definition) A physical property directly proportional to the size or amount of a substance.
Extensive Properties (examples) Mass, volume, number of moles, particle number, energy, enthalpy, and entropy.
Heat Capacity The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an amount of a substance by 1
Fundamental quantities Length, mass, time, temp, moles, amperes
Derived quantities velocity, volume, area, density, joules
Significant figures - addition and subtraction The result of a sum or the difference has the SAME # of decimal places as the least precise measurement used.
Significant figures - multiplication and division The result of a product or quotient has the same number of sig figs as the least precise measurement used in calculating the result.
Exact numbers Derived from definition or from a direct count... contains no uncertainty (infinite significance).
Scientific notation (sig figs) The number of sig figs is equal to the number of digits to the left of the x 10^? Example 34.5 x 10^2 .... 3 sig figs
Intensive Properties (definition) A physical property that is NOT dependent upon the amount of a substance present.
Intensive Properties (examples) Temperature, density, melting and boiling points, ductility, specific gravity, and viscosity
Extensive Properties (definition) A physical property directly proportional to the size or amount of a substance.
Extensive Properties (examples) Mass, volume, number of moles, particle number, energy, enthalpy, and entropy.
Heat Capacity The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of an amount of a substance by 1 degree Celsius. Extensive Property.
Heat Capacity Units Joules/degrees Celsius
Specific Heat The amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 degree Celsius
Specific Heat Units Joules/gram/degree Celsius
Heat Capacity and Specific Heat + or - The sign will be negative if energy is lost and positive if energy is gained.
Created by: tracypippins