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Lewis theory A simple model of chemical bonding using diagrams that represent bonds between atoms as lines or pairs of dots.
ionic bond A chemical bond formed between two oppositely charged ions, generally a metallic cation and a nonmetallic anion that are attracted to one another by electrostatic forces.
covalent bond A chemical bond in which two atoms share electrons that interact with the nuclei of both atoms, lowering the potential energy of each through electrostatic interactions.
metallic bonding The type of bonding that occurs in metal crystals, in which metal atoms donate their electrons to an electron sea, delocalized over the entire crystal lattice.
octet A Lewis structure with eight dots, signifying a filled outer electron shells for s and p block elements.
octet rule The tendency for most bonded atoms to possess or share eight electrons in their outer shell to obtain stable electron configurations and lower their potential energy.
bonding electrons A pair of electrons shared between two atoms.
lone pair electrons A pair of electrons associated with only one atom.
bond order For a molecule, the number of electrons in bonding orbitals minus the number of electrons in nonbonding orbitals divided by two-a positive bond order implies that the molecule is stable.
single bond The bond that forms when one electron pair is shared between two atoms.
double bond The bond that forms when two electron pairs are shared between two atoms.
triple bond The bond that forms when three electron pairs are shared between two atoms.
electronegativity The ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a covalent bond.
non-polar covalent bond Two atoms sharing electrons equally.
polar covalent bond Two atoms sharing electrons unequally.
dipole moment A measure of the separation of positive and negative charge in a molecule.
resonance Two or more valid Lewis structures that are shown with double-headed arrows between them to indicate that the actual structure of the molecule is intermediate between them.
resonance hybrid The actual structure of a molecule that is intermediate between two or more resonance structures.
formal charge The charge that an atom in a Lewis structure would have if all the bonding electrons were shared equally between the bonded atoms.
free radical A molecule or ion with an odd number of electrons in its Lewis structure.
VSEPR theory (Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion) A theory that allows prediction of the shapes of molecules based on the idea that electrons-either as lone pairs or as bonding pairs-repel one another.
electron pair geometry The geometrical arrangement of electron groups in a molecule.
molecular geometry The geometrical arrangement of atoms in a molecule.
valence bond theory An advanced model of chemical bonding in which electrons reside in quantum-mechanical orbitals localized on individual atoms that are a hybridized blend of standard atomic orbitals - chemical bonds result from an overlap of these orbitals.
hybridization A mathematical procedure in which standard atomic orbitals are combined to form new, hybrid orbitals.
hybrid orbitals Orbitals formed from the combination of standard atomic orbitals that correspond more closely to the actual distribution of electrons in a chemically bonded atom.
sigma bond The resulting bond that forms between a combination of any two s, p, or hybridized orbitals that overlap end to end.
pi bond The bond that forms between two p orbitals that overlap side to side.
Created by: akatier23