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Praxis II EYC

Praxis II for Education of Young Children

Bruner (cognitive development) Enactive-learn by doing, observation, reaction to what others do Iconic-begin to form images of objects Symbolic-represent world using symbols B believed tht kids can master subject matter & younger age if material is presented simplest form- spiral cu
Bandura- Social Cognitive Theory adds concern w/cognitive factors-beliefs, self-perceptions & expectations to social learning theory; interactions among behavior, environment & personal traits; beliefs about personal capacity; learning thu observation, guide own learning thru self-regu
Bloom cognitive domain-mental skills, knowledge remembering-knowledge, understanding-comp. applying, analyzing, evaluating, creating (synthesis),affective domain (growth in feelings or emotional areas, psychomotor domain (manual/physical skills)
Piaget: cognitive stages- sensorimotor begins to make use of imitation, memory, thought, begins to recognize tht objects don't cease to exist when hidden, moves from reflex actions to goal-directed activty
P's cognitive stages- preoperational gradually develops use of language & ability to think in symbolic language & abiliy to think in symbolic form, is able to think operations thru logically in 1 direction, difficulty with other's POV
P's cognitive stages- operational able to solve concrete (handso on) problems in logical fashion, understands laws of conservation and is able to classify, seriate, understands reversibility
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Lower level/deficiency- survival, safety, belonging, self-esteem Higher level/being- intellectual achievement, aesthetic appreciation, self-actualization
Vygotsky- sociocultural theory emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues b/w children & more knowledgeable members of society, children learn the culture of their community through these interactions
Erikson's stages of emotional growth Infancy trust vs/ mistrust; key is love from parents, infants will develop a sense of trust if needs are met w/regularity
Erikson's stages- Toddler Autonomy vs. shame & doubt; children will see that they can function independent of adults but in some things they are dependent, which creates the potential for shame & doubt, should encourage them to do things in their own way at their own pace
Erikson's stages- Preschool initiative vs. guilt- kids test their powers at "grown up" tasks, need freedom to explore & experiment, sense of purpose, adults must take the time to answer questions
Erikson's stages- School age industry vs. inferiority; the school & neighborhood become important influences, ss desire work instead of all play, teachers should create successful experiences for ss & praise efforts
Factors that influence social & emotional development gender, home life, cultural identity, role models
Factors that shape oral language development biological, cultural, & experimental (observed); by 5, most ss have mastered the sounds of their native language; b/w 2-3 can use about 450 words & understand many more
Factors that foster literacy skills conversations w/adults that develop knowledge about language; joint reading, using books as supports for talk about sounds, words, pictures & concepts; home experiences are central in the development of language & literacy
Socioeconomic status relative standing in the society based on income, power, background, & prestige
constructivist view that emphasizes the active role of the learner in building, understanding & making sense of info
Maturationist advanced by Gessell; believed that development is a bilolgical process that occurs automatically in predictable, sequential stages over time; leads many educators & families to believe ss will acquire knowledge naturally & automatically as they grow up
Behaviorist a developmental theory that measures observalbe behaviors produced by a learner's response to two stimuli; behavior is sandwiched b/w 2 sets of environmental influences- those tht proceed it (antecedents) and those that follow it (consequences)
Ecological this theory looks at a child's development w/in the context of the system of relationships tht form his or her environment Brofenbrenner's theory defines complex "layers" of environment, each having an effect on a child's development
Curriculum process Assess ss prior knowledge & developmental growth, lessons based on crucial standards & tying previous knowledge & experiences, to what they are learning; standards- guidelines to help ss reach benchmarks; final assessments- show ss progress
Know your students 1- know the age group and how it typically develops 2- know how each individual is developing 3- know their culture
Standards what students should know & be able to do
benchmarks key checkpoints that monitor progress toward academic content standards
grade-level indicators what all ss should know & be able to do at each grade level
"teachable moments" be intentional in everything you do: creating the environment, considering the curriculum, tailoring curriculum to the s as individuals, planning learning experiences, interacting w/children
Curriculum principle focused- a curriculum that focuses on the important math topics and ideas at each grade; coherent- a curriculum that fits math ideas together in a meaningful way; well articulated- a curriculum that builds on previous learning & grows across the grades
Math guidelines must have assessments that guide and enhance learning; communicate that confusion, partial understanding, & some frustration are a natural part of the process of learning math; reward ss for critical thinking & creative problem solving
More math guidelines emphasize meaning & understanding rather than memorizing; model problem-solving strategies rather than presenting finished solutions; show a positive attitude toward math, encourages ss to tell you how they feel about math
Increasing retention in math meaningful learning is the best way to increase retention, establishing connections aids long-term retention, review key ideas to help
Procedural knowledge is reflected in skillful use of math rules and algorithms, conceptual knowledge involves understanding what math concepts mean
Constructing understanding knowledge is not passively received- it's actively created, ss create new math knowledge by reflecting on theri physical and mental actions, learning reflects a social process in which ss engage
help ss make sense of math teach to the developmental characteristics of ss, actively involve ss, move learning from concrete to abstract, use communication to encourage understanding
Standards for Math Number and Operations understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, & number systems; understand meanings of operations & how they relate to one another; compute fluency & make reasonable estimates
Algebra understanding patterns, relations, & functions; represent & analyze math situations & structures using algebraic systems
Geometry analyze characteristics & properties of 2-d and 3-d geometric shapes & develop math arguments about geometric relationships
How geometry plays a role the process standards of geo- reasoning, problem solving, communication, representing, & connections- play a prominent role in geometry; engages ss differently in performance & persistence, ss can make & verify guesses about geometric figures
Estimation being by making ss aware of what estimation is about- involves a dif mindset from the midset tht says only an exact answer will do; have 2 help ss change mindset before teaching estimation; give immediate feedback, encourage ss to be flexible w/numbers
Stages of Number Sense Development: Prenumber development- classification and patterning
Stages of Number Sense Development: early number development- one-to-one correspondence, comparisons
Stages of Number Sense Development: number development-s connecting groups with number names, including oral and written cardinal and ordinal numbers, group recognition, counting forward & backward, skip counting, establishing benchmarks of quantities, place value
Whole number operations whole numbers are the basis for many math ideas; experiences w/whole numbers arise before school starts; building on ss experiences w/counting, the lower grades emphasize whole numbers. Work w/fractions & decimals emphasize whole numbers
Geometry materials (manipulatives) tangrams (develop problem-solving skills: sorting, logical thinking, identifying patterns, testing, recording), pattern blocks, geoboards, pentominoes (perception, problem-solving, logical reasoning, etc.)
Print materials in classroom sources of info, for pleasure or recreation, as a means of recording or communicating
writing process Scribbles in line across page, then scribbles in line under drawing scribble or picture, fills pages with lines of writing-like scribbles, makes a few mock letters within scribbles, makes more mock letters & fewer scribbles,
Writing process continued makes printed letters here and there-some reversed, prints letters of name- some out of order or reversed, prints letters of first name in order, prints words to go w/picture
Phonemic awareness a child's understanding tht speech is composed of words, syllables, & sounds; seems rooted in children's singing, rhyming, skipping, & word games; engaging ss in readings or rhymes & rhythms allows them to associate the symbols w/sounds they hear in words
Decoding the various skills ppl use to decipher a printed sentence into an understandable statement
Decoding strategies look at picture, think of what makes sense, read it again from beginning, think about words you know tht start w/the beginning sound, sound it out, look for chunks
Word Families also known as phonograms or chunks, letter patters. Ss can use them to decode through analogy- use what they know about one word to decode another; helps ss build larger reading vocabularies. Ex: "it" chunk- hit, sit, bit, quit, fit, lit, knit
Root words crucial in ss education as they help carry spelling skills over to reading fluence & greatly increase general comprehension skills. Basis of common words;can make root trees
Phonics the relationships b/w letters & sounds; helps ss develop rich reading vocabularies, contributes to reading fluency, & supports reading independence; makes it easier to read & learn new words.
Grapheme an alphabetic unit- ex: unit has 4 graphemes
Phoneme the smallest sound that differentiates one word from another- ex: Jessica has 5 phonemes
Journal writing demonstrates the importance of words, shows words have meaning; using paper w/space for picture incorporates visual cue; exploring their thoughts & feelings thru writing can make it meaningful & exciting; can discover ss writing strengths/weaknesses
Shared reading teacher models reading to children who are asked to comment extensively about the story they're listening to. Goals are making meaning thru partnership, increasing confidence in reading ability, gaining insight how books r used, reflecting more on story
Cues phonetic cues, meaning cues, syntax (structure) of sentence cues (sound right), visual info cues (look right)
Rubrics for literacy running records, hearing & recording sounds in words test, letter id test, Ohio Word Test, readiness tests
Stages of play 0-2 yrs: solitary- plays alone, limited interaction w/others; 2-2.5 yrs- spectator, observes others but won't play w/; 2-3 yrs- parallel- play alongside others not w/them; 3-4 yrs associate- starts interact w/others, some co-operation; 4-6 yrs- co-op play
Science Cause & Effect Show kids everything has a consequence, reason for something happening: I heard a loud noise because... a book dropped. The book dropped because... the shelf broke. If You Give a Mouse a Cookie
Health- teaching educate children about daily health routines- getting enough sleep, eating healthy, brushing teeth, bathing
Safety inform ss of safety precautions- look both ways before crossing street, recognize warning labels, etc.
Fine motor skills use of hands; activities- tying shoes, zipping, drawing, painting, coloring, manipulating buttons & snaps, doing puzzles, using scissors, holding pages of book properly
Gross motor skills Larger muscles; dancing, songs w/movement, walking, skipping, hopping, jumping, swimming, balancing, riding tricycles, throwing & catching
Epilepsy neurological condition that causes the brain to produce bursts of electrical energy; may cause seizures. Can range from a tingling in the finger to a grand mal seizure where child is unconsious, stiff, jerks.
Dealing with epilepsy Stay calm, put something soft under head, protect child from injury (remove harmful objects near), DO NOT put anything in mouth, time how long seizure lasts, reassure them & stay w/them, DO NOT give food or drink until fully recovered
Created by: jcolombo