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CHM 110 Chapter 06

Chapter 06: Solutions and Colloids

What are some properties of solutions? 1.) distribution of particles is uniform 2.) the components do not seperate on standing 3.) can not be seperated into its components by filtration 4.) can be in many combintations 5) almost always transparent 6) there are other chemical means to separate
solubility the maximum amount of the solid that will dissolve in a given amount of a particular solvent at a given temperature
insoluble is when solids have a very low solubility
soluble when solids have a very high solubility
what is the term to refer to a liquid dissolving into a liquid miscible
what does the "like dissolves like" rule apply? polar compounds dissolve in polar solvents and nonpolar compounds dissolve in nonpolar substances
Is water a polar or nonpolar solvent? nonpolar
for solids/liquids/gases that dissolves in liquids, solubility ____ with an ______ ________. increases, increasing temperature
What is henry's Law? the higher the pressure, the greater the solubility of a gas in a liquid
What are the two major ways to express the concentration of solutions? percent concentration (three types) and Molarity
What three ways are percent concentration represented? (w/v)%, (w/w)%, and (v/v)%
What is Molarity? the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 L of solution M = moles of solute/volume of solution
How does water dissolve ionic compounds? when a solid ionic compound is added to water, water molecules surround the ions at the surface of the crystal. The negative ions attrtact the positive ends of water molecules and the positive ions attract the negative ends of water molecules
hydrated ions removed from the crystal that are completely surrounded by water molecules
What is Water of hydration? when you have water molecules in a crystal
anhydrous crystals without water
hydroscopic anhydrous crystals that become hyrated in air
ions in water migrate from one place to another. this conducts electricity. anions migrate to the electrode called the ________ ; cations, migrate to the electrode called the ________ . anode, cathode
what are electrolights? substances that conduct electricity when dissolved in water
Substances that do not conduct electricity in water are called nonelectrolytes
electric conductance depends on what? the concentration of ions. the higher the ion concentration, the greater the electric conductance of the solution
strong electrolytes compounds that dissociate completely
weak electrolyes compounds that dissasosiate only partically
water is a good dissolver for also _______ covalent compounds
most covalent compounds in water ... do not dissolve. only dissolve in water if they they are (1) small and (2) can form hydrogen bonds with water
What are colloids? range 1-1000 nm
tyndall effect light scattering of colloidal particles
Brownian motion the random and chaotic motion of any colloidal particle suspended in a solvent
What is osmolarity? M x i (i is the number of particles in 1 formula unit)
hypotonic solution when a solution has a lower osmolarity than another
hypertonic solution when a solution has a higher osmolarity than another.
Created by: dzelaya