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10.1-10.8

Vocabulary

WordDefinition
Polar Covalent Bonds the bonding electrons are shared between two atoms.
Dipole a pair of separated electrical charges
Intermolecular Forces an attractive interaction betwen molecules
vaan der Waals forces an alternate name for intermolecular forces
Ion-Dipole Forces an intermolecular force resulting from electrical interaction between an ion and partial changes on a polar molecule.
Ionic Bond generally forms between the cation of a metal and the anion of a reactive nonmetal
Dipole-Dipole Forces intermolecular force resulting from electrical interactions among dipoles on neighboring molecules
London Dispersion Force an intermolecular force resulting from the presence of temporary dipoles in atoms or molecules
Polarizability the ease with which a molecule's electron cloud can be distored by a nearby electronegative atom.
Hydrogen bond an attractive intermolecular force between a hydrogen atom bonded to an electronegatuve O, N, or F atom and an unshared electron pair on a nearby electronegative atom
Viscosity the measure of a liquid's resistance to flow
Surface Tension the resistance of a liquid to spreading out and increasing its surface area
Phase Change a process in which the physical form, but not the chemical identity of substance changes
Phase a state of matter
Free Energy Change a general criterion for the spontaneity of a chemical or physical process.
Molar Heat Capacity (Cm) the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one mole of the substance by one degree Celsius
Heat of Fusion the amount of heat required for melting a solid to a liquid
Heat of Vaporization the amount of heat required for vaporization of a liquid to a gas
Vapor Pressure (Pvap) the partial pressure of a gas in equilibrium with liquid
Clausius-Clapeyron equation a mathematical relationship between vapor pressure and heat of vaporization for a substance(equation in notes)
Normal Boiling Point the temperature at which boiling occurs when there is exactly one atm. of external presssure
Crystalline Solids a solid whose atoms, ions, or molecules have an ordered arrangement extending over a long range
Amorphous Solids a solid whose constituent particles are randomly arranged and have no ordered, long range structure.
Ionic Solid a solid whose constituent particles are ions ordered into a regular three-dimensional arrangement held together by ionic bonds
Molecular Solid a solid whose constituent particles are molecules held together by intermolecular forces
Covalent Network Solid a solid whose atoms are linked together by covalent bonds into a giant three dimensional array
Metalic Solid a solid consisting of a metal atoms, whose crystals have metallic properties such as electrical conductivity
Allotropes different structural forms of an element
Phase Diagram a plot showing the effects of pressure and temperature on the physical state of substance
Triple Point a unique combination of pressure and temperature at which gas, liquid and solid phases coexist in equilibrium
Normal Melting Point the temperature at which melting occurs when there is exactly one atm. of external pressure
Critical Point a combination of temperature and pressure beyond which a gas cannot be liquefied
Supercritical Fluid a state of matter beyond the critical point that is neither liquid or gas.
Created by: berrya2
 

 



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