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Worsham Chem Q2

number used to represent the number of electrons lost, gained or shared in a chemical change/reaction oxidation number
unreacted elements have oxidation numbers equal to zero
atoms in ionic compounds that lose electrons have, what groups are they positive oxidation numbers, IA & IIA
atoms in ionic compounds that gain electrons have, whar groups are they negative oxidation numbers, VIA & VIIA
what are the 7 nonpolar covalent diatomic molecules, what is their oxidation number H, O, N, F, Cl, Br, I; zero
in polar covalent molecules one atom will acquire a ________ oxidation number and one atom a _________ negative oxidation number positive, negative
in MOST compounds O will have an oxidation number of __ and H __ -2, +1
the sum of the oxidation numbers of the atoms of the molecule must be zero in both ionic and covalent compounds
metal and nonmetal compounds form an ionic/covalent bonds ionic
covalent bonds are formed by nonmetal compounds
a symbol represents the name of the element, 1 atom of the element, atomic mass of the element, it is abbreviation for an element
Al aluminum
Ar argon
Br bromine
Ca calcium
C carbon
Cl chlorine
Cu copper
F fluorine
He helium
H hydrogen
I iodine
Fe iron
Mg magnesium
Mn manganese
Hg mercury
Ne neon
N nitrogen
O oxygen
P phosphorus
K potassium
Ag silver
Na sodium
S sulfur
Zn zinc
What is a formula a qualitative and quantitative expression of a compound using symbols and subscripts to indicate the chemical constituents and their respective numbers and represent the abbreviation for a compound
2 or more elements chemically combined in a definite proportion by mass compounds
how are the chemical combination and definite proportion by mass determinded atomic structure of the elements involved
what is the object of formula writing achieve a noble-gas configuration for each of the elements involved
halogens have a common oxidation number of -1
group IA have a common oxidation number of +1
group IIA have a common oxidation number of +2
group VIA have a common oxidation number of -2
what type of metals often have more than one oxidation number transition metals
bivalent 2 possible oxidation numbers
when writing formulas _______ oxidation number comes first, _________ oxidation number is second positive, negative
polyatomic ion group of atoms that acts as a unit and possesses a charge
MOST polyatomic ions are negative
when looking at the charge of a polyatomic ion, you look at the entire compound as a whole
how is Ammonium ion an exception it is positively charged polyatomic ion
NH4 +1 ammonium ion
HCO3 -1 bicarbonate ion
OH -1 hydroxide ion
NO3 -1 nitrate ion
NO2 -1 nitrite ion
CO3 -2 carbonate ion
SO4 -2 sulfate ion
SO3 -2 sulfite ion
PO4 -3 phophate ion
mass of a compound that is the sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms present in one molecule of the substance molecular mass
when naming compounds the ______ is named first and the _______ ____ is named second metal, polytomic ion
what is the only positive polyatomic ion NH4, has a +1 charge
molecular mass of a compound sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms present in one molecule of the substance
naming format compounds containing metal and polyatomics ions metal first, polyatomic ion second
naming format compounds containing the ammonium ion & polyatomic ion ammonioum ion first, neg. ion second
Naming format compounds containing a metal & a nonmental name of the metallic element remains intact, root of the nonmetallic element acquires an ide suffix
naming format comounds containing a nonmetal & a nonmetal (covalent) 1st nonmetallic element intact, add ide to the root of the 2nd nonmetallic element, prefixes are used to indicate more than 1 atom of the nonmetallic element
what are the contemporary naming format for the bivalent metals Cu & Fe Cu(I) & Cu(II) and Fe(II) & Fe(III)
what does an equation represent an abbreviation for a chemical change
synthesis reaction start with 2 reactants and end with 1 product
decomposition reaction start with 1 reactant and end with 2 products
reactant are to the _____ of the arrow and products are to the _____ of the arrow left, right
is H2+O2=H2O balanced, if not why no, should be 2H2+O
facts about oxygen nonmetal, most abundant element on Earth, symbol is O, means "acid former", Group VIA element, 6 valence electrons, oxidation #-2, diatomic molecule
physical properties of O colorless, odorless, tasteless gas, heavier then air, slightly soluble in water
chemical properties of O reacts w/ many substances, reacts w/ many metallic & nonmetallic elements to form oxides, supports combustion, acts as an oxidizing agent
4 definitions of oxidation 1) addition of oxygen to a substance 2) removal of hydrogen from a substance 3) removal/loss of electrons from a substance 4) increase in oxidation # of a substance
4 definitions of reduction 1) removal of O from a substance 2) removal of H from a substance 3)addition of electrons 4) decrease in oxidation #
oxidizing agent the substance being reduced in an oxidation-reduction reaction, the simplest form is O
reducing agent the substance being oxidized in an oxidation-reduction reaction, simplest form is H
hydrogen is the most abundant element in/on the universe
the atmosphere has very little free hydrogen
most hydrogen occurs in a combined state
info for hydrogen: symbol, formula, atomic #, amu, oxidation # H, H2, +1, 1, +1
physical properties of hydrogen colorless, odorless, tasteless gas; lighter then air, slightly soluble in water
chemical properties of H burns with a hot blue flame forming water, not combustable, reducing agent
what is the most abundant compound water
75% of Earth is covered by water
water is found in all humans, plants, animals & bacterial cells
water is what type of molecule bent with 105 degree angle
molecular mass of water is 18amu
physical properties of water colorless, odorless, tasteless liquid; has a heat of fusion and heat of vaporization, specific, very good solvent for many substances
water freezes at 0 degrees C, 32 degrees F, 273K at 1atm pressure
water boils at 100 degrees C, 212 degrees F, 373K at 1atm pressure
hydrohen bonding is ________, between intermolecular attractive force, hydrogen on 1 water molecule & an O atom on another
surface tension the force that causes the surface of a liquid to contract
surface-tension reducing agentsn are also called sufactants; surface active agents; wetting agents
chemical properties of water very stable, chemically reacts w/ Grp. I & IIA metals to liberate H, forms hydrates, enters into hydrolysis reactions
water reacts with some metallic oxides to form bases
water reacts with some nonmetallic oxides to form acids
what is the key factor in decomposition & the attemp to arrest decomp water
hard water is considered to be water that contains certain minerals such as Ca, Mg, Fe(I)
hardness of water is divided into how many classes? 2
temporary hardness of water: can be removed by boiling & is due to the presence of bicarbonate salts Ca & Mg
permanent hardness of water: cannot be removed by boiling & is due to the presence of chloride & sulfate salts of Ca & Mg
Created by: 1157564676



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