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Ch 20

Transition Metals and Coordination Chemistry key terms

AP Chem term (Ch. 20)Definition
complex ion a charged species consisting of a metal ion surrounded by ligands.
lanthanide contraction the decrease in the atomic radii of the lanthanide series elements, going from left to right on the periodic table.
lanthanide series a group of fourteen elements following lanthanum in the periodic table, in which the 4f orbitals are being filled.
coordination compound a compound composed of a complex ion and counter ions sufficient to give no net charge.
counterions anions or cations that balance the charge on the complex ion in a coordination compound.
oxidation states a concept that provides a way to keep track of electrons in oxidation-reduction reactions according to certain rules.
coordination number the number of bonds formed between the metal ion and the ligands in a complex ion.
ligand a neutral molecule or ion having a lone pair of electrons that can be used to form a bond to a metal ion; a Lewis base.
coordinate covalent bond a metal-ligand bond resulting from the interaction of a Lewis base (the ligand) and a Lewis acid (the metal ion).
monodentate (unidentate) ligand a ligand that can form one bond to a metal ion.
chelating ligand (chelate) a ligand having more than one atom with a lone pair that can be used to bond to a metal ion.
bidentate ligand a ligand that can form two bonds to a metal ion.
isomers species with the same formula but different properties.
structural isomerism isomerism in which the isomers contain the same atoms but one or more bonds differ.
stereoisomerism isomerism in which all the bonds in the isomers are the same but the spatial arrangements of the atoms are different.
coordination isomerism isomerism in a coordination compound in which the composition of the coordination sphere of the metal ion varies.
linkage isomerism isomerism involving a complex ion where the ligands are all the same but the point of attachment of at least one of the ligands differs.
geometrical (cis-trans) isomerism isomerism in which atoms or groups of atoms can assume different positions around a rigid ring or bond.
optical isomerism isomerism in which the isomers have opposite effects on plane-polarized light.
chirality the quality of having nonsuperimposable mirror images.
enantiomers isomers that are nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other.
Created by: LordWiitalian