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chem exam

end of semester exam!

compostition stochiometry deals with the mass relationships of elements in compounds
reaction stochiometry involves the mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
limiting reactant reactant that limits the amount of the other reactant that can combine and the amount of product that can form in a chemical reaction.
excess reactant substance that is not used up completely in a reaction
theoretical yield maximum amount of product that can be produced form a given amount of a reactant
percentage yield actual yield theoretical yield*100
ideal gas hypothetical gas that perfectly fits all the assumptions of the kinetic theory
real gas gas that does not have completely according to the assumption of the kinetic theory.
Arrehnius Acid an acid as a stand alone material, the more h3O+ ions the stronger the solution is
Arrehnius base water solution that contains OH- iopns the stronger the base = the number of free OH- ions
Bronsted lowry acid base system Acid- its abiliity to give a proton Base- its ability to accept a proton if they are both strong enough they can neutralize
Lewis Acid Electron pair acceptor
Lewis base Electron pair donator
Property of acid #1 Water solutions of acids have a sour taste
A #2 Affect indicators certain chemicals when exposed to acids change color
A #3 Some react with metals to realease H2 gas Ca+hcl(aq)--->Cacl2+ H2
A #4 Acids react with bases to produce salt + water
A #5 Acid solution, conduct electric current so must be electrolytes.
Standard molar volume Volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas at STP, + 22.4
Avagadro's law Equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules
COmbine gas law P1V1 = P2V2 ____________ T1 T2
Molarity Number of moles of solute ------------------------- Per liter of solution
Molality Moles of Solute ---------------- 1Kg of solute
Net ionic equation only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqeous solution
Spectators ions that do not take part in a chemical equation and are found in solution both before and after reaction
Percipitate Solids formed in a liquid
Miscible Mutuably soluable can dissovle any amount of one into the other
immiscible Liquids that are not soluable in each other
Colloids larger can see the light being reflected off. Particles are not at fundamental state but are small enough to remain suspended indefinetly
Entropy Measure of randomness or disorder of a system
Why reactions take place spontaneously 1.Energy chemical reaction will occur if you are moving towards lower amounts of enrgy. Substances that have Hf will occur more than the T. greater enrgy change the more stable or unstable it will be.
SPontaneous reactions #2 Entropy- the measure of degree of randomness or the level of disorder everything in nature moves to higher levels of entropy.
Free Energy Equation G=HR-TS
Strong Acid Weaak conjugated Base
Strong Base Weak conjugated acid
WEak Acid Strong conjugated base
Weak base Strong Conjugated ACid
Property of Bases #1 Have bitter taster like soap.
B #2 If you take strong base and mix animal fat and you can make soup.
B #3 React with acids to produce salts
B #4 Produce electric current b/c Contains ions
Energy measured in Joules
Created by: this_isme