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Ch 11

Properties of Solutions key terms

AP Chem term (Ch. 11)Definition
molarity (M) moles of solute per kilogram of solvent in a solution.
mass percent the percent by mass of a component of a mixture, or of a given element in a compound.
mole fraction the ratio of the number of moles of a given component in a mixture to the total number of moles in the mixture.
molality (m) the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent in a solution.
normality the number of equivalents of a substance dissolved in a liter of solution.
enthalpy (heat) of solution the enthalpy change associated with dissolving a solute in a solvent; the sum of the energies needed to expand both solvent and solute in a solution and the energy released from the solvent-solute reactions.
enthalpy (heat) of hydration the enthalpy change associated with placing gaseous molecules or ions in water; the sum of the energy needed to expand the solvent and the energy released from the solvent-solute interactions.
Henry's law the amount of gas dissolved in a solution is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas above the solution.
thermal pollution the oxygen-depleting effect on lakes and rivers of using water for industrial cooling and returning it to its natural source at a higher temperature.
Raoult's law the vapor pressure of a solution is directly proportional to the mole fraction of solvent present.
ideal solution a solution whose vapor pressure is directly proportional to the mole fraction of solvent present.
colligative properties properties of a solution that depend only on the number, and not on the identity, of the solute particles (concentration).
molal boiling-point elevation constant a constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the change in boiling point as a function of solution molality; used in molecular weight determinations.
molal freezing-point depression constant a constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the change in freezing point as a function of the solution molality; used in molecular weight determinations.
semipermeable membrane a membrane that allows solvent but not solute molecules to pass through.
osmosis the flow of solvent into a solution through a semipermeable membrane.
osmotic pressure (pi) the pressure that must be applied to stop osmosis.
dialysis a phenomenon in which a semipermeable membrane allows transfer of both solvent molecules and small solute molecules and ions.
isotonic solutions solutions having identical osmotic pressures.
reverse osmosis the process occurring when the external pressure on a solution causes a net flow of solvent through a semipermeable membrane from the solution of to the solvent.
desalination the removal of dissolved salts from an aqueous solutions.
van't Hoff factor the ratio of moles of particles in solution to moles of solute dissolved.
ion pairing a phenomenon occurring in solution when oppositely charged ions aggregate and behave as a single particle.
Tyndall effect the scattering of light by particles in a suspension.
colloid (colloidal dispersion) a suspension of particles in a dispersing medium.
coagulation the deduction of a colloid by causing particles to aggregate and settle out.
Created by: LordWiitalian