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Ch 10

Liquids and Solids key terms

AP Chem term (Ch. 10)Definition
condensed states liquids and solids.
intermolecular forces relatively weak interactions that occur between molecules.
dipole-dipole attraction the attractive force resulting when polar molecules line up so that the positive and negative ends are close to each other.
hydrogen bonding unusually strong dipole-dipole attractions that occur among molecules in which hydrogen is bonded to a highly electronegative atom (N, O, F).
London dispersion forces the forces, existing among noble gas atoms and nonpolar molecules, that involve an accidental dipole that induces a momentary dipole in the neighbor.
surface tension the resistance of a liquid to increase in its surface area.
capillary action the spontaneous rising of a liquid in a narrow tube.
viscosity the resistance of a liquid to flow.
crystalline solid a solid with a regular arrangement of its components.
amorphous solid a solid with considerable disorder in its structure.
lattice a three-dimensional system of points designating the positions of the centers of the components of a solid (atoms, ions, or molecules).
unit cell the smallest repeating unit of a lattice.
X-ray diffraction a technique for establishing the structure of crystalline solids by directing X rays of a single wavelength at a crystal and obtaining a diffraction pattern from which inter-atomic spaces can be determined.
ionic solid (salt) a solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to conduct electrical current.
molecular solid a solid composed of neutral molecules at the lattice points.
atomic solid a solid that contains atoms at the lattice points.
Created by: LordWiitalian