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7th Grade Grammar

To make a Spanish noun that ends in a vowel plural, you should... example: libro and an s. libros
To make a Spanish noun that ends in a consonant plural, like profesor, you should... add -es. profesores
Spanish nouns that in in -z, like lápiz and vez, become plural by... changing the z to c, then adding -es. lápices / veces
Definite articles el, la, los, and las all mean this in English. the
Definite articles that indicate that a noun is maculine are... el and los
Definite articles that indicate that a noun is feminine are... la and las
There are two contractions with the word el, these contractions are... al -->to the;at the del-->from the, of the
Indefinite articles are words that translate to a(n)or some. There are four of them in Spanish. They are... un/una--->both can mean a or an unos/unas--->both mean some
Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns in order to... avoid repetition.
Words that replace nouns and can be used as subjects of a sentences are called... subject pronouns.
yo I
you informal (to a friend=
él He´
ella she
usted you (formal) used with adults
nosotros and nosotras we (mixed group or males)/ we (all girls)
vosotros and vosotras y´all (only used in Spain and is used to address a group of friends)
ellos they ( mixed group or group of boys only) used when talking ABOUT a group, not TO a group
ellas they (all females) used when talking ABOUT a group of girls, not directly to them.
ustedes You all (used in formal situations in Spain and used for both formal and informal situations in Latin America.) Used when talking directly TO a group of people, not ABOUT them.
Me to or for me; me
Te to for for you; you
le to or for him, her, it, you
nos to or for us;us
vos to or for you all (informal) Spain only; you all
les to or for them or you all (ustedes)
lo direct object pronoun= him,it
la direct object pronoun= her it
los direct object pronoun=them or you all
las direct object pronoun = them or you all
Adjectives must agree in...and ... with the noun they describe. gender...number
to make adjectives that end in a vowel plural... add -s.
to make adjectives that end in consonants plural.. add -es.
este means... this *masculine
esta means... this *feminine
Este es mi libro. This is my book.
Esta es mi regla. This is my ruler.
primero/a first
algo something
nada nothing
alguien someone
nadie nobody
o or
en in/on
¿A dónde? to where?
¿De dónde? from where?
¿Cómo? How? - What?
¿Cuál?-¿Cuáles? Which? what?
¿Cuándo? When?
¿Cuánto? ¿Cuánta? How much?
¿Cuántos? ¿Cuántas? How many?
¿Dónde? Where?
¿Por qué? Why?
¿Qué? What?
¿Quién(es)? Who(m)?
todos los días every day
a veces sometimes
casi almost
casi nunca almost never
casi siempre almost always
al lado de next to
antes de before
arriba over,above
con with
de from or of
debajo de under
delante de in front of
desde from
detrás de behind
en in or on
encima de over or on top of
hacia towards
hasta until
para for or in order to
por for, by
sin without
present verb endings for ar verbs o, as, a, amos, an
present verb endings for er verbs o, es, e, emos, en
present verb endings for ir verbs o, es, e, imos, en
hacer to make or do
yo form of hacer hago
poner to put, place, or set
yo form of poner pongo
saber to know information, to know about...
yo form of saber
salir to leave, go out
yo form of salir salgo
traer to bring
yo form of traer I bring
tener to have
yo form of tener tengo
venir to come
yo form of venir vengo
ver to see
yo form of ver veo
conocer to know or meet
yo form of conocer conozco
ser to be
forms of ser (is,am,are) soy, eres, es, somos, son
estar to be
forms of estar (is,am,are) estoy, estás, está, estamos, están
ir to go
forms of to go (go,goes) voy, vas, va, vamos, van
stem-changing verbs are... verbs that require a spelling change in the stem when they are being conjugated to any form other than nosotros or vosotros.
preferir to prefer
poder to be able to
jugar to play a game or sport
pedir to request; ask for
empezar to begin or start
pensar to think
querer to want
nevar to snow
venir to come
merendar to have a snack
calentar to heat up
almorzar to have lunch
llover to rain
encontrar to find
volver to return; come back
devolver to return something
dormir to sleep
probar to try *taste
acostarse to go to bed
costar to cost
vestirse to get dressed
servir to serve
gustar to please
I like me gusta(n)...
You like te gusta(n)...
He/She likes... le gusta(n)...
We like... nos gusta(n)...
You all like... les gusta(n)...
They like... les gusta(n)
Reflexive verbs are... used when the person doing the action also receives the action.
lavarse to wash oneself
ponerse to put on
vestirse to get dressed
acostarse to go to bed
afeitarse to shave
bañarse to take a bath
levantarse to get up
maquillarse to put on makeup
peinarse to comb ones hair
secarse to dry off
sentirse to feel
commands. hablar habla, no hables
commands. escribir escribe, no escribas
commands. pides pide, no pidas
commands. hacer haz, no hagas
commands. poner pon, no pongas
commands. salir sal, no salgas
commands. ir ve, no vayas
commands. ser sé, no seas
commands. decir di, no digas
tener...años to be..years old
tener frío to be cold
tener calor to be hot
tener miedo to be afraid
tener sueño to be sleepy
tener ganas de... to feel
tener hambre to be hungry
tener sed to be thirsty
tener prisa to be in a hurry
tener que (infinitive) to have to do something
tener razón to be right
tener suerte to be lucky
Hace frío It´s cold.
Hace calor. It´s hot.
Hace viento. It´s windy.
Hace mal tiempo. The weather is bad.
Hace buen tiempo. The weather is nice.
Hace fresco. It´s cool.
Hace sol. It´s sunny.
Está lloviendo. It´s raining.
Está nevando. It´s snowing.
Está nublado. It´s cloudy.
Created by: srkennedy1
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