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General Science

Chemistry The study of materials and their interactions:organized study of the composition of matter
Matter The substance of the physical world and the interactions of matter with matter:occupies space,has inertia:cannot be created or destroyed under ordinary conditions,it only changes form
Inertia The property of resisting changes in motion.object at rest tends to remain at rest until some force causes it to move: directly related to the mass of the object
Mass Quantity of matter the object contains.the greater the mass the greater the inertia
Three Basic States that matter ordinarily exists 1.solid 2.liquid 3.gas
PLASMA A hot gas in which atoms are broken down into charged particles
Weight Measure of the gravitational force (downward pull of planet) on the object
John Dalton's Atomic Theory part 1 1.every element consists of tiny particles called atoms 2.All atoms of particular element have the same properties 3.Different elements have different properties because their atoms are different
John Dalton's Atomic Theory part 2 1.Atoms of different elements can combine in a specific way to form compounds 5.Chemical processes are the result of the rearrangement, combination, or separation of atoms
Atomic Theory of Matter The foundation of our understanding of matter
Atoms small particles which matter is consisted of,from a Greek word meaning "not cuttable "
Elements substances which are composed of a single type of atom; also known as the building blocks of all substances in the univers
Compounds substances composed of more than one type of atom linked together
Molecule Group of atoms linked together;both elements and compounds may be composed of molecules
Chemical Symbol A unique abbreviation for each element is based on either common name or Latin name of the element
Brownian Motion Random movement of particles
Kinetic theory of matter Molecules of matter are in constant motion; the higher one's temperature is,the faster the atoms
Diffusion occurs in one direction, from higher concentration to lower concentration
semipermeable Allows substances to diffuse through them but not other substances: they are porous but close-knit molecular structure that allows small molecules to pass through but not large ones
Osmosis One-way diffusion through a semipermeable membrane:occurs from higher concentrations to lower concentrations:very important process in living things:cells of plants,animals,and people regulate water balance by osmosis
What two main categories is chemistry divided to? Organic and Inorganic chemistry
What are atoms composed of? subatomic particles
List the five subatomic particles 1.proton 2.neutron 3.quarks 4.electrons 5.neutrinos
Nucleus Atom's dense core which is made up of protons and neutrons
Protons subatomic particles which carry a positive electrical charge; also part of the nucleus;also known as the atomic number
neutrons subatomic particles which are neither positive nor negative
Atomic number number of protons in the nucleus
Isotopes Atoms of the same element having different numbers of neutrons
Quarks building blocks which the proton and neutron are composed of:two of them the up quark,which has an electrical charge 2/3 positive while the down quark has an electrical charge of -1/3 negative
Electron third component of the atom,found outside of the nucleus and carries a negative charge equal in strength to a proton but 1836 times smaller than proton but not composed of smaller particles and orbit far from nucleus;atom is mostly empty space
electron shells orbits which help the electrons circle the nucleus super fast and can hold a certain number of electrons and farther orbits hold more electrons than the innermost orbit
Energy levels another name for electron shells because the electrons in higher shells have more energy than those in lower shells
Show how many electrons each orbit contains levels:K,designation:1,max:2 L 2 8 M 3 18 N 4 32 O 5 50
ion atom which develops an electrical charge by either losing or gaining electrons
Cation positive ions
anion negative ions
When a substance consist of ions it is said to be ionized
electron neutrino(Neutrino) a interesting and puzzling subatomic particle that is related to the electron but no electric charge and little mass:produced in certain types of nuclear reactions: since they no charge pass through electron shells of atoms unaffected
Quantum theory tiny particles such as electrons do not absorb/release energy in a smooth flow
Quantum a packet where energy is always absorbed or released
Quantum jump when an electron changes energy levels,change shells or orbits when they gain or lose energy
Bohr model most familiar model of the atom,pictures a nucleus of protons and neutrons that move in circular orbits at specific energy levels
Wave-mechanical model model of atom that pictures electrons as waves circling the nucleus at specific energy levels
Heisenberg uncertainty principle principle of physics stating that it is highly impossible to determine the position and velocity of a subatomic particle simultaneously
Electron-cloud model(quantum mechanical model) Model of atom that pictures a nucleus surrounded by a cloud of electrons,in which density of the cloud at a given point represents the probability of finding an electron at that point
Quantum numbers numbers that describe its shell/energy level,shape of its orbital(spherical,dumbbell,or cloverleaf),the orientation of orbital in space(vertically, horizontally or diagonally positioned) and spin(either clockwise or counterclockwise)
Mass number atoms number of protons and neutrons in its nucleus
atomic mass unit(amu) unit of average atomic mass,equal to exactly 1/12 of the mass of an carbon atom
atomic mass average mass(number of protons and neutrons)of various isotopes of an element compared to the mass of a carbon- 12 atom
When an atomic nucleus breaks up or undergoes a change,it gives off what? nuclear radiation
Any substance that is unstable(and thus liable to produce radiation) it is RADIOACTIVE
Half life length of time it takes for 1/2 of the original substance to decay to a new substance(radium- 226 to radon-222)
Radioactive decay when an atomic nucleus breaks up or changes,emitting radiation
two types of radioactive decay alpha particle and beta particle
alpha decay type of radioactive decay in which an unstable atom ejects a clump of two protons and two neutrons
Beta decay type of radioactive decay in which a neutron in the nucleus of an unstable atom changes into a proton and emits an electron in the process
Gamma radiation Most powerful form of electromagnetic radiation,consisting of electromagnetic waves of extremely high frequency and energy and great penetrating ability
NUCLEAR FISSION the process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into two or more pieces,releasing energy
Chain reaction In nuclear physics,a process by which one atom undergoes nuclear fission, releasing neutrons which split other atoms,which split other atoms
Critical mass the amount of fissionable material that must be present in order for a chain reaction to take place
nuclear reactor a device that uses a controlled nuclear fission chain reaction to produce useful energy
breeder reactors a nuclear reactor that uses excess neutrons to change unfissionable uranium- 238 into fissionable plutonium- 239,thereby producing more nuclear fuel than it uses
Chernobyl a place in Russia where the worst nuclear accident happened thanks to a unsafe reactor and soviets conducting an unauthorized experiment
Nuclear Fusion the process in which two small atomic nuclei are joined to form a larger nucleus,releasing energy
hydrogen bomb most powerful bomb ever known,uses nuclear fusion to release a tremendous amount of energy
thermonuclear reactions names that nuclear fusion reactors are sometimes described
All atoms seek to have what? 8 electrons in the outermost shell
Alkali metals a group of very soft,shiny metals with low melting points that belong to Group IA of the periodic table
alkaline earth metals group of metals belonging to group IIA of the periodic table, harder and denser than alkali metals but softer and less dense than most metals
Transition metals transition metals belonging to groups IB to VIIIB of the periodic table
Inner transition metals a group of mostly radioactive elements located between groups IIIB and IVB of the periodic table
Halogens salt formers because they easily combine with IA to IIA metals to form salts
Noble gases All have similar properties,all are gases and all are found in nature in their pure states,all have 8 electrons in outer shell
Can a nuclear reactor explode like an atomic bomb?why? No;a chain reaction occurs gradually in a mixture of U-235 and U-238
What is another name for nuclear fusion reactions thermonuclear reactions
What does the periodic law state When elements are arranged by their increasing atomic numbers,they show regular and repeating properties
What is a group in the periodic table? a vertical column consisting of elements with the same number of valence electrons
Name two examples of alkaline earth metals? beryllium,magnesium,calcium,strontium,barium,or radium
Name three well-known gases helium,neon,argon,krypton,xenon,or radon
physical properties properties of substance which can be observed or measured without changing substance into a different substance
chemical properties properties of substances determine how substance reacts with other substances to form new substances
chemical change change that occurs when two or more substances unite or break apart chemically
elements are most basic components of physical world around us.Elements are not always found as single atoms;several elements exist naturally in molecules
molecules groups of two or more atoms that are linked together by chemical bonds
buckminsterfullerene C60
compounds are composed of different types of atoms linked together;compounds are thus combinations of two or more kinds of elements
molecular mass sum of atomic masses of all atoms in molecule,stated in atomic mass units
pure substances elements and compounds
mixtures two or more elements or compounds physically mixed but not chemically combined
solution uniform mixture which one substance dissolved in another substance
colloid mixture containing tiny clumps or particles that remain suspended within mixture
formulas in chemistry,a combination of chemical symbols and numbers showing the type and number of atoms in each unit of compound
molecular formula type of formula that gives the number of each type of atom in molecule
structural formula type of formula showing the general arrangement of atoms in molecule; most informative type of formula
empirical formula type of formula that gives only the simplest ratio of atom in molecule
chemical bonds force of attraction that holds atoms together in a molecule or ionic crystal
covalent bond chemical bond resulting from sharing of valence electrons between atoms
single bond type of covalent bond in which only pair of electrons is shared between atoms
double bond type of covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared between atoms
triple bond type of covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared between atoms
nonpolar covalent bond when both atoms have the same strength of electrical attraction for shared electrons
polar covalent bond atom with stronger attraction tends to pull the shared electrons toward itself
dipole molecule molecule having two oppositely charged ends or "poles",as result of polar covalent bond
ionic bond type of chemical bond in which positively charged ions are electrically attracted to negatively charged ions
ionic crystals orderly geometric arrangement of ions held together by universal electrical attraction
formula unit simplest ratio of ions in ionic compound or crystal
intermolecular forces the forces of adhesion and cohesion between molecules that bind them together to form larger objects
three types of intermolecular force London force, dipolar forces,hydrogen bonds
dipolar force intermolecular force that exists between polar(dipolar) molecules
London force weak intermolecular force exists between all molecules;caused by temporary imbalance in electron distribution
hydrogen bond strong intermolecular force that exists between atoms of compounds in which hydrogen atom is covalently bonded to certain larger atoms
crystalline solids solid which atoms are arranged in regular three dimensional pattern
amorphous solids without form;referring to a solid,in which molecules are not arranged in a orderly,repeating pattern
melting point temperature which molecules of a solid break loose from their rigid intermolecular bonds and flow freely over one another forming a liquid
boiling point the point at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure above it, allowing the liquid to boil
vapor pressure the tendency of molecules of a liquid to evaporate at a given temperature
the boiling point of a liquid is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure above the liquid
in critical temperature water cannot exist in the liquid state, but behaves as a gas regardless of the pressure
molecular mass the sum of the atomic mass of all atoms in a molecule,stated in atomic mass units
the vapor pressure and boiling point of a substance depend primarily upon two factors molecular mass of its molecules and the type of the intermolecular forces that bind molecules together
solubility ability of one substance to be dissolved in another substance
solute the substance that dissolves
solvent the substance into which the solute dissolves
substances with polar molecules are dissolved by solvents with polar molecules
nonpolar substances are dissolved into nonpolar solvents
insoluble describing a substance is not readily dissolved by a given solvent
Created by: blinx34212



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