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nutrition final

Calories from fat, CHO, protein, and alcohol Fat: 9 CHO & protein: 4 Alcohol: 7
The chief reason people choose the foods they eat Taste or personal preference
Relationship between a risk factor and a disease a risk factor is a condition or behavior associated with an elevated frequency of a disease but not proved to be causal
Goal of healthy people 2010? set goals for the nation's health over the next 10 years
What is a functional food? foods that contain physiological active compounds that proved health benefits beyond their nutrient contributions
the major nutrients of the fruit and vegetable group Vitamin A & C
ABCDMV of diet planning adequacy, balance, kCal control, nutrient density, moderation, variety
nutrient dense provides more nutrients relative to kcals
What percentage of a person's grain consumption should be whole grains? 50
Daily values Food labels express the nutrient content in relation to a set of standard values
empty calories excess energy and little or no protein, vitamins or minerals.
What types of foods provide discretionary calories? all foods
What is the major energy carrier in most cells? ATP
Which of the following describes the sum of all chemical reactions that go on in living cells? metabolism
A feature of catabolic reactions is that they involve release of energy
Moderate alcohol intake for a man and woman 2 drinks for men and 1 drink for women
what is photosynthesis in a plant? the process by which green plants use the sun's energy to make CHO from carbon dioxide and water
aerobic reaction requiring oxygen; ride a bike for an hour
anaerobic reaction not requiring oxygen; run a quarter mile as fast as you can
If the body has been fasting, what is used to supply some of the fuel needed by the brain? Glucose needed for the brain and protein provides the glucose (overall CHO, fats, and proteins)
How many extra calories does a person needs if they wish to gain 1 pound per week?  500 extra calories a day or 3500 total
What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month? 4lbs
Female athlete triad eating disorder, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis
What are the external cues that may trigger us to eat? TV commercial, availability of food, and "time of day" patterns
The feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal satiety
hunger the painful sensation caused by a lack of food that initiates food-seeking behavior
appetite the integrated response to the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food that initiates or delays eating
normal % body fat range for men and women men: 13-21 women: 23-31
Why is excess fat stored in the abdomen a risk factor? high risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes
What is the main explanation for the difference in basal metabolic rates between males and females of the same body weight? Males have a higher percentage of lean body mass
amenorrhea absence or cessation of menstruation; it induces prolonged bone loss
What is the most satiating nutrient? protein
During starvation, what % of lean body mass is lost?  ?
BMI an index of a person's weight in relation to height: healthy weight 18.5-24.9, underweight below 18.5, overweight above 25, obese above 30
For every decade beyond the age of 30, what is the percentage decrease in the need for total kcalories? 5
the bodies set point the point at which controls are set; proposes that the body tends to maintain a certain weight by means of its own internal controls
All of the following are sensible guidelines for diet plans except eat rapidly to avoid prolonged contact with food.
Why do people lose weight on high protein diets? CHO are restricted
Upon beginning a meal, the satiety signal in the body is sent after a lag time of about 20 min
As a general rule, what minimum number of kcalories per day is necessary to ensure nutritional adequacy in an eating plan for reducing body weight? 1200
fad diet A popular eating plan that promises quick weight loss
What is the chief factor that determines a person’s susceptibility to obesity? taking in more kcals then expending; environmental factors
Television watching contributes to obesity for all of the following reasons except it replaces time that could be spent eating
What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people? 0.5-2 lbs/week
General characteristics of the water-soluble vitamins include all of the following except they must be consumed daily.
Which of the following represents the results of well-controlled studies of vitamin C supplementation on the resistance to, and recovery from, colds? - There was only a minor effect on reducing the number and severity of colds - There was a significant reduction in the duration of colds in people who consumed at least one gram a day
In what capacity does vitamin C function? Cofactor in collagen formation
Why are vegetarians at risk of developing a vitamin B12 deficiency? Vegetarian diets provide insufficient amounts of the vitamin
the different types of anemia? iron, folate, and B12
Which of the following food groups ordinarily contains the highest amount of vitamins when expressed per kcalorie? vegetables
What is a chief function of the B vitamins? coenzyme participation
What is the primary excretory route for the water-soluble vitamins? kidney
Research has shown that the risk for neural tube defects is lowered by taking supplements of folate
What vitamin is involved mainly with the replacement of red blood cells and digestive tract cells? folate
What is a free radical? - a molecule with at least one unpaired electron - A molecule that is unstable and highly reactive because it contains unpaired electrons
Which of the following describes the basic function of a coenzyme? Attaches to an enzyme and allows a chemical reaction to take place
Which of the following foods is highest in folate? grean, leafy vegetable
Which of these meals is lowest in vitamin C? Roast beef, carrots, noodles, and tea
Which of the following foods provides ample amounts of vitamin C? broccoli
What is a precursor? a substance that is used to synthesize another compound
niacin toxicity or flush temporary burning, tingling, and itching sensation; often accompanied by a headache, reddened face, arms, and chest
What is meant by the bioavailability of a vitamin in food? The amount absorbed and subsequently used by the body
Which of the following is not among the features of the fat-soluble vitamins? Transported permanently to the liver and adipose tissue
Greg says that he usually eats 1 medium carrot every day to ensure that he's consuming enough vitamin A. Today he said he didn't eat any carrots and is worried that there is not enough vitamin A in his system. What would you say to Greg to allay his fear? "Don't worry; fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body. It takes a lot longer than one day to develop any adverse effects"
The main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as a(n) antioxidant
Which of the following are major sources of vitamin E in the diet? vegetable oils
What is/are the main function(s) of vitamin D? Promotes calcium and phosphorus absorption and promotes calcium mobilization from bone
Vitamin D source sun, vit-d fortified milk or soy milk
Which of the following food substances can be converted to vitamin A in the body? beta-carotene
rickets the vitamin d deficiency disease in children characterized by inadequate mineralization of bone (manifested in bowed legs, outward-bowed chest, and knobs on ribs)
the limit for vit A supplements for pregnant women. 10,000 IU
What actions can we take to maximize bone health?  exercise (vit k and calcium)
What is the body's most indispensable nutrient? water
Which of the following is a feature of physical activity and bone health? Working the muscles places stress on bones which stimulates more trabeculae development
All of the following factors are known to enhance the absorption of iron except calcium from milk - MFP factor - organic acids - ascorbic acid
What substance will help the body absorb calcium? vitamin D
At what age do adults normally begin to lose bone mass? 30-40 yrs
All of the following are good plant sources of calcium for the body except spinach
The DASH diet plan was devised to prevent hypertension
hypertension high than normal blood pressure
Which of the following is an important function of selenium? inhibits the formation of free radicals
What is the response of the thyroid gland to an iodine deficiency? Increase in its size to trap more iodine
Iodine functions - integral part of the thyroid hormones that regulate body temp, metabolic rate, reproduction, growth, blood cell production, nerve and muscle function, and more
As far as is known, what hormone is dependent upon chromium for optimal activity? insulin
A craving for non-food substances is known as pica
Why do people take zinc lozenges? to treat the common cold
What is the most reliable source of dietary fluoride? public water
The components of fitness include all of the following except bone fragility
Which of the following is a characteristic of glycogen synthesis after a bout of strenuous training? Glycogen repletion is enhanced most by eating foods with a high glycemic index
How long can you exercise before glycogen stores are depleted? about 2 hours
What is the predominant fuel used by muscle cells during low- or moderate-intensity activity? fat
Which of the following would be the best choice for physically active people who need to rehydrate? diluted juice or cool water
For the normal-weight woman who becomes pregnant, what is the ideal weekly weight gain from the start of the second trimester and onward? 1 lb (3 1/2 lb the first trimester and a total weight gain of 25-35 lbs)
weight gain for underweight pregnant women - 5 lbs in the 1st trimester - over pound/week thereafter - total=28-40 lbs
weight gain for overweight pregnant women - 2 lbs the 1st trimester - 2/3 lb/week thereafter - total=15-25 lbs
weight gain for obese pregnant women 15 lb minimum
How many extra calories are needed to produce breast milk in the 1st 6 months? almost 500
Since repeated pregnancies occurring within short time frames lead to depletion of the mother's nutrient reserves, what is the optimal interval between pregnancies? 1 1/2- 2
Which of the following statements reflects current knowledge of food choices in pregnancy? Cravings and aversions to certain foods are probably the result of altered taste and smell sensitivities induced by hormones
What is the most reliable indicator of an infant's future health status? infant's birthweight
Of the following nutrient needs, which is considered the most difficult to meet during pregnancy? iron
have been advising patients to make sure they consume about 400 micrograms of folate everyday. One patient is aware that folate helps prevent birth defects but she isn't sure why she should take it if she is not pregnant. The neural tube develops early on in pregnancy, oftentimes before most women realize they are pregnant
Which of the following is a feature of the WIC program? It saves an estimated $3 in medical costs in the first two months after birth for every dollar spent
All of the following statements are specific to the critical periods of cell division except high-nutrient-density food fed after the critical period can remedy a growth deficit.
Why are fatty acids important for preterm infants fed formula? it supports growth; nutrient absorption of fat is low and deficiency in fat-soluble vitamins
During the first year of life, cow's milk is considered an inappropriate food due to all of the following except it is too low in sodium - too low in iron - too high in protein - too low in vitamin c
What should be the first cereal introduced to the infant? rice
Compared with cow's milk, breast milk contains less protein and calcium
Which of the following defines nursing bottle tooth decay? Marked tooth decay of an infant due to prolonged exposure to carbohydrate-rich fluids from a bottle
What is a normal body weight for a 1year old infant?  20-25 lbs
In older adults, why is body weight important? - in can defend against chronic diseases - make sure to get all the nutrients
Does the ‘normal weight’ BMI range change? Yes it increases to max of 27
Which of the following is a feature of elderly people and water metabolism? They do not feel thirsty or recognize dryness of the mouth
Why does vit b12 deficiency occur in older adults? they have atrophic gastritis: a chronic inflammation of the stomach characterized by inadequate hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor
What is a congregate meal? A meal provided for the elderly in a place such as a community center
sarcopenia loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and quality
Created by: dschuesler