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Aldehydes, Ketones, Organic Acids, and Esters

Aldehydes are prepared by the oxidation of a primary alcohol
an organic group containing one or more -CHO groups aldehyde
What is the functional group for the aldehydes? carbonyl group (-CHO)
general formula for the aldehydes R-CHO
where is the functional group located on the carbon chain for the aldehydes? at the end of the carbon chain
methyl alcohol oxidizes to form formaldehyde
the molecular formula for formaldehyde HCHO
another name for formaldehyde methanal
a three-carbon chain aldehyde would be called propanal
formaldehyde in water is known as formalin
formalin is what percentage aqueous solution of formaldehyde by weight? 37%
formalin is what percentage aqueous solution of formaldehyde by volume? 40%
formed by the oxidation of ethanol, a two carbon chain aldehyde acetaldehyde
another name for acetaldehyde ethanal
a benzene derivative in which one of the hydrogens in the ring is replaced with an aldehyde group benzaldehyde
benzaldehyde is known as an aromatic aldehyde
an aldehyde with two aldehyde group (having a carbonyl group at each end of the carbon chain) dialdehydes
the simplest dialdehyde is glyoxal
two examples of dialdehydes glyoxal and glutaraldehyde
the oxidation of a secondary alcohol yields a ketone
the general formula for a ketone is RCOR
a ketone has two ____ groups attached to a ___ group two alkyl groups attached to a carbonyl group
the simplest ketone is propanone
propanone is also known as (2) acetone, dimethyl ketone
the general formula for carboxylic acids R-COOH
the functional group in a carboxylic acid is known as a carboxyl group
two examples of carboxylic acids methanoic acid, ethanoic acid
another name for methanoic acid formic acid
another name for ethanoic acid acetic acid
_____ oxidize for form organic acids aldehydes
_____ oxidizes to form formic acid (also means _____ oxidizes to form ____ acid) formaldehyde (methanal, methanoic)
_____ oxidizes to form acetic acid (also means ____ oxidizes to form ____ acid) acetaldehyde (ethanal, ethanoic)
general formula for esters R-COO-R
two examples of esters ethyl acetate, methyl salicylate
a colorless liquid that has a characteristic smell like certain glues or nail polish removers ethyl acetate
ethyl acetate is derived from ____ and _____ ethanol and acetic acid
known as oil of wintergreen, a natural product of many species of plants methyl salicylate
methyl salicylate is derived from _____ and _____ methanol and salicylic acid
derived from an alcohol and an organic acid esters
Created by: amyziolkowski