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Elementary Chemistry

God's Design for Chem. Properties of Matter Chap. 10-32

physical property a property that can be measured, studied and tested without changing what kind of matter is being studied
chemical property a property that describes how a substance reacts in the presence of other substances to create new substances
physical state a physical property of a substance; whether it is a gas, a liquid, or a solid; determined by how tightly its molecules cling to each other and the amount of energy necessary to make the molecules move apart
solid a substance that keeps its shape, has definite volume, is denser than most liquids and gases, and its molecules are closely packed together
liquid a substance that take the shape of its container, has definite volume, and is denser than a gas; its molecules move freely over one another and its shape will change when you put it in a different container
gas a substance that has enough energy for its molecules to break apart from each other and move freely; it will take on the shape of its container, and it does not have a definite volume
atmospheric pressure the pressure applied to a surface by the collision of the air molecules with that surface; also called air pressure
viscosity a measurement of how strongly a substance's molecules are attracted to each other
classification grouping things together according to their similar characteristics; matter is classified into three groups; elements, compounds and mixtures
elements a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means; the simplest kinds of matter
compounds substances that are formed when two or more elements combine chemically to make a new substance
mixtures formed when two or more substances are mixed together but do not chemically combine to form a different substance
How many elements are there that occur naturally? 92
How many elements are man-made? 20+
What are the basic building blocks of elements? atoms
atom smallest unit of an element that has the properties of that element
What four things did the ancient Greeks believe everything was made from? fire, air, earth, water
solution a homogeneous mixture in which one substance has been dissolved in another substance
homogeneous mixture one in which the substances are evenly distributed
solute the substance that is dissolved in a mixture (for example, the salt dissolved in salt water)
heterogeneous mixture one in which the substances are not evenly distributed (or mixed up)
solvent substance in which something is dissolved (this would be the water in the salt water)
solubility the measure of how much solute can be dissolved in a given amount of solvent (for example, how much salt can be dissolved in a cup of water)
Boyle's Law As pressure on a gas increases, the volume of the gas decreases. Conversely, as the pressure goes down, the volume of the gas goes up. This law is true as long as the temp. of gas does not change.
Charles' Law If the temperature of the gas doubles, its volume will double as well. If the temperature of the gas decreases, it volume will decrease. This law remains true as long the pressure on the gas remains the same.
molecule when two or more atoms combine together they form a molecule
diatomic molecules two atoms of the same type of element combined together
What type of substance is formed when two or more different types of elements combine chemically to form a molecule? a compound
How many known elements are there? 110
What percentage of the earth is covered with water? Over 70%
Why is life able to exist on earth and not on any other planet in our solar system? (What is the most significant factor?) Water. God designed water to be the perfect compound to sustain life.
Why is water nearly a universal solvent? Dissolves nearly everything it touches, some things more quickly than others.
concentration the amount of solute dissolved in a solution
diluted solution when a relatively small amount of a solute is in a solution (like watered-down Kool-Aid)
concentrated solution when there is a relatively large amount of solute in a solution (like lemonade that is too strong)
carbohydrates molecules made from carbon, oxygen & hydrogen
Name two types of carbohydrates. Sugars (naturally occur in many fruits and vegetables) and starches (found in wheat, rice, oats, other grains, and potatoes)
proteins made from molecules called amino acids that consist of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms
Sources of protein meat, nuts, many types of beans, dairy products
fats very long molecules that are found in many foods
Sources of fats nuts, meats, dairy, vegetables, snack foods and anything made with oil, margarine or butter
pasteurization Process of heating milk to 161°F for 15 minutes to kill bacteria. It is then cooled and stored at temperatures below 45°F. Named for Louis Pasteur.
homogenization Process that breaks up the fat molecules into tiny bundles so they stay suspended in the liquid of the milk instead of floating to the top. If milk is not ______________ he cream will rise to the top.
suspension A mixture that is made of one substance that does not dissolve in the other substance. In a ______________, the molecules are held apart for a while, but eventually they come back together and settle out.
immiscible liquids that do not mix, such as oil and water
emulsifier another substance that helps to keep the suspended particles from coming back together, staying mixed up
colloid a suspension with very tiny particles throughout the liquid
solubility the measure of how well one substance dissolves in another; can be a solid dissolving in a liquid or liquids and gases dissolved in liquids.
Created by: learningathome