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A&P 2 Test #3

What are the primary sex organs and their functions The gonads (the ovary or testis) and the produce gametes
What are the secondary sex organs of the reproductive system Male: system of ducts, glands, penis deliver sperm cells; Female: uterine tubes, uterus, and vagina receive sperm and harbor developing fetus
Describe secondary sex characteristics Both Sexes: pubic, axillary hair, & pitch of voice; Men: facial hair, muscular physique, & testosterone stimulates growth of SSC in males; Females: breast enlargement, distribution of body fat
When do gonads begin to develop & what do they develop as 5 or 6 weeks; gonadal ridges
What is the SRY gene Sex- determining region of the Y chromosome
What is the code for a protein that initiates development of testes TDF (testes determining factor)
What does it mean to be homologous Organs that develop from the same embryonic structure
The penis is homologous to what structure in females Clitoris
The labia majora is homologous to what structure in males Scrotum
What is cryptorchidism & how can it be cured When boys are born with undescended testes; a testosterone injection will draw testes into the scrotum
What is the function of the cremaster muscle Contracts in cold temperatures & draws testes upward toward body; relaxes in warm temperatures suspending testes further from the body
What is the pampiniform plexus An eextensive network of veins from the testes that surround the testicular artery & spermatic cord
What is the purpose of the countercurrent heat exchanger of the pampiniform plexus Keeps the warm arterial blood from over heating the testis which would inhibit sperm production
What is the main function of Blood-Testis Barrier (BTB) Prevents antibodies and other large molecules in the blood from getting to germ cells
Describe the function of the duct of the epididymis This is the site of sperm maturation & storage (fertile for 40 to 60 days)
Describe the seminal vesicles There are a pair of glands posterior to the bladder; empties into the ejaculatory duct; forms 60% of semen
Describe the prostate gland Surrounds urethra & ejaculatory duct just inferior to the bladder; 30 to 50 compound tubuloacinar glands; empty through about 20 pores in the prostatic urthera; thin milky secretion forms 30% of semen
What is BPH (bemign prostatic hyperplasia) An enlargement of the prostate which compresses the urethra & obstructs flow of urine
What encloses the spongy (penile) urethra Corpus spongiosum
When do testes secrete a substantial amount of testosterone during fetal development In the first trimester (first 3 months)
What another name for LH (luteinizing hormone) & what does it do Interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH); stimulates interstitial cells to produce testosterone that has a negative feedback effect on GnRH
What is inhibin & how does it affect the male reproductive system Also called sustentacular cells; suppresses secretion of FSH from anterior pituitary reducing sperm production without reducing LH & testosterone secretion
A rise in FSH & LH secretion in men after the age of 50 produces what Male climacteric (andropause); mood changes; hot flashes; illusions of suffocation
What are 3 principal events in spermatogenesis Remodeling of large germ cells into small mobile sperm cells; reduction of chromosome number by a half (23) in sperm cells; shuffling of genes so new combinations exist in sperm different from parent
How many sperm cells are produced from one germ cell by meiosis 4
What is spermiogenesis When the 4 spermatids no longer divide & undergo a transformation which they differentiate into spermatozoon (sperm cells)
What happens to the cytoplasm in spermiogenesis excess cytoplasm is discarded & tails grow on mature sperm
What is an acrosome An enzyme cap over the apical half of the nucleus that contains enzymes that penetrate the egg
What sperm count will cause infertility Lower than 20 to 25 million/mL
What so seminal vesicles do Provide fructose and other sugars to the mitochondria
What happens during the excitement phase during male sexual response Dilation of deep arteries and filling of lacunae with blood
During orgasim (climax) what happens to the body The heart rate, blood pressure, & breathing greatly elevate
What drug (secretion) slows down the breakdown of cGMP by phosphodiesterase type 5 & prolongs the duration of the erection Viagra (nitric oxide secretion)
What are the internal genitalia of the female reproductive system Ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, & vagina
What are the external genitalia of the female reproductive system Clitoris, labia minora, & labia majora
What is the location of the female reproductive system The perineum
What are the primary sex organs of the female reproductive system Ovaries
What are the secondary sex organs of the female reproductive system Internal & external genitalia
What are the 4 follicle stages the egg goes through in the ovary (in order) Primordial, primary, secondary, mature
What is the myometrium & what is it composed of The middle muscular layer of the uterine wall; constitutes most of uterine wall (especially in nonpregnants); composed of mainly smooth muscle
Why is the endometrium important It is the inner wall of the uterus & is the site of attachment of the embryo & forms the maternal part of the placenta from which the fetus is nourished
What do spiral arteries do They penetrate through the myometruim into the endometrium; wind between endometrial glands toward surface mucosa; rhythmically constrict & dilate making the mucosa alternatively blanch & flush with blood
How does vaginal epithelium change from childhood & puberty Childhood has simple cubodial & puberty has stratified squamous (transformed by estrogens)
Describe breasts Mound of adipose tissue overlying the pectoralis; enlarges at puberty; contains very little mammary gland
Where & when does the mammary gland develop In the breast during pregnancy
What determines breast size The amount of adipose tissue
What are estrogens Feminizing hormones
What is estriol The most abundant estrogen of pregnancy
What is estradiol Has the most estrogenic effect in pregnancy
What are the 3 stages of female puberty Thelarche, pubarche, & menarche
What is thelarche The onset of breast development
What is pubarche The appearance of pubic & axillary hair, sebaceous & axillary glands
What is menarche The first menstrual period
What does progesterone primarily act on The uterus preparing it for possible pregnancy
What is climacteric in women A midlife change in hormone secretion; accompanied by menopause (cessation of menstruation)
What happens during menopause Blood vessels (cutaneous arteries) constrict & dilate in response to shifting hormone balances; hot flashes (spreading sense of heat from the abdomen to the thorax, neck, & face
What is oogenesis The production of egg (starts during embryonic development)
What stage in meiosis II does the secondary oocyte proceed to Metaphase II
What happens if the secondary oocyte is fertilized It completes meiosis II & casts off a second polar body
Where are primordial follicles concentrated & how many are in the adult ovar In the cortex of the ovary; 90-95%
Describe primary follicles They have larger oocytes & follicular cells that still form a single layer
When does a LH surge occur in women About 24 hours prior to ovulation; can be detected with a home testing kit
Which oocyte “bursts” for ovulation Secondary
An ovulated follicle becomes what The corpus luteum
Describe the corpus luteum A yellow lipid that accumulates in the theca interna cells; cells now called lutein cells
How does the LH affect the corpus luteum LH stimulates the corpus luteum to continue to grow and secrete rising levels of estradiol & progesterone
What is the most important aspect of the luteal phase The 10 fold increase in progesterone
What & when is the premenstrual phase The period of endometrial degeneration; last 2 days of the cycle (27th or 28th day)
What is the function of the greater vestibular gland during the excitement phase in the female sexual response Its secretion moistens the vestibule & provides lubrication
What is the tenting effect When the uterus stands nearly vertical opposed to tilting forward over the bladder
What are paraurethral glands Homologous to the prostate; sometimes expel copious fluid similar to prostatic fluid (female ejaculation)
What is blastocyst The developing individual id a hollow ball the first 2 weeks
What is an embryo from day 16 through 8 weeks
What is a fetus Beginning of week 9 to birth
What is the function of the placenta provides fetal nutrition and waste disposal, secretes hormones that regulate pregnancy, mammary development, and fetal development
What is HCG & what is it secreted by Human chorionic gonadotropin; blastocyte & placenta
What is the longest stage of labor Early dilation; lasts 8-24 hours
When does colostrum form In late pregnancy; first 1 to 3 days after birth
An infant’s suckling stimulates sensory receptors in the nipple to do what Signals the hypothalamus and posterior pituitary to release oxytocin
Why is cow’s milk not a good substitute for breast milk Is contains 1/3 less lactose but 3 times as much protein; it’s harder to digest & contains more nitrogenous waste which causes diaper rash
How long does the sperm have to fertilize the egg before it dies 12 to 24 hours of ovulation
List the reason why vast majority of sperm do make it to the egg destroyed by vaginal acid or drain out of vagina; fail to penetrate the mucus of the cervical canal; destroyed by leukocytes in the uterus; half go up wrong uterine tube; of the 300 million that were ejaculated, 2,000 to 3,000 spermatozoa reach vagina
What is capacitation process that migrating sperm must undergo to make it possible to penetrate an egg
How is the plasma membrane of a fresh sperm toughened Cholesterol
What is the function of cholesterol prevents premature release of acrosomal enzymes while sperm is still in the male which prevents enzymatic damage to sperm ducts
T/F. Conception is optimal if sperm are deposited a few days before ovulation to 14 hours after True
What is acrosomal reaction exocytosis of the acrosome, releasing the enzymes needed to penetrate the egg
What are two acrosomal enzymes Hyaluronidase and acrosin
What is the function of the acrosomal enzyme hyaluronidase digests the hyaluronic acid that binds granulosa cells together
What is the function of the acrosomal enzyme acrosin a protease similar to trypsin
What are two mechanisms to prevention of polyspermy Fast block and slow block
What is fast block and how does it work binding of the sperm to the egg opens Na+ channels in egg membrane, inflow of Na+ depolarizes membrane and inhibits the attachment of any more sperm
What is slow block and how does it work involves secretory granules, cortical granules, just below membrane; which makes sperm penetration releases an inflow of Ca2+ and stimulates cortical reaction in which the cortical granules release their secretion beneath the zona pellucid
T/F. In cleavage, by the time the conceptus arrives in the uterus it is 16 celled True
What is the morula stage in cleavage solid ball of 16 cells that resemble a mulberry
What is trophoblast The outer layer of squamous cells (destined to form the placenta and it plays a role in nourishment of the embryo
What is embroblast The inner cell mass (destined to become the embryo)
What are dizygotic twins two eggs are ovulated and two fertilized forming two zygotes;no more or less genetically similar than any other siblings; implant separately in the uterine wall and form its own placenta, about two-thirds of twins
What are monozygotic twins one egg is fertilized (one zygote) but embryoblast later divides into two; genetically identical, of the same sex, and nearly identical in appearance
What does Gastrulation leads to the formation of primary germ layers
What function of mesenchyme gives rise to muscle, bone, and blood
What is coelom – the body cavity between the two layers of mesoderm
When are all the organ present in the fetus that is 3cm long At 8 weeks
What are derivatives of ectoderm epidermis, nervous system, lens and cornea, internal ear
What are derivatives of mesoderm skeleton, muscle, cartilage, blood, lymphoid tissue, gonads and ducts, kidneys and ureters
What are the derivatives of endoderm gut and respiratory epithelium and glands, bladder, and urethra
What is amnion transparent sac that develops from epiblast
What grows to completely enclose the embryo and penetrated only by the umbilical cord Amnion
What is the chorion The outermost membrane enclosing all the rest of the membranes and the embryo
What is the function of the umbilical vein loads oxygen and nutrients and returns to fetus
What is the ductus venosus Carries most venous blood bypasses the liver
What is foramen ovale hole in the interatrial septum
T/F. most of this blood is shunted directly into the aorta by way of a short passage called the ductus arteriosus bypassing lungs True
T/F. fetal circulatory patterns change dramatically at birth when the neonate is cut off from the placenta and the lungs expand with air (greatest anatomical change) True
What is the blood circulation before and after birth See figure 29.10
What is the neonatal period The first 6 weeks of life
What do the flaps of foramen ovale do fuse to close shunt
What leave depressionin the heart and where is this depression left - fossa ovalis in the interatrial septum of the heart
List a few respiratory adaptations of newborn onset of breathing due to CO2 accumulation; first two weeks 45 breaths per minute
What is infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) insufficient surfactant causing alveolar collapse with exhalation
What is thalidomide babies born with unformed arms and legs, and often with defects of the ears, heart, and intestines
What is fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) characterized by small head, malformed facial features, cardiac and central nervous system defects, stunted growth, and behavioral signs such as hyperactivity, nervousness, and poor attention span
Name the genes of nondisjunction of autosomes involve chromosomes 13, 18, and 21 (gene poor chromosomes)
What is down syndrome trisomy 21; impaired physical development, relatively flat face with flat nasal bridge, low set ears, epicanthal folds at medial corners of the eye, enlarged protruding tongues, stubby fingers, short broad hand with one palmar crease; mental retardation
T/F. renal atrophy can clear drugs rapidly False it can not clear drugs rapidly
T/F. 80% of men over 80 have benign prostatic hyperplasia True
What is urine retention caused by aggravating failure of nephrons
What is a characteristic replicative senescence decline in mitotic potential with age; normal organ function depends on rate of cell renewal keeping pace with cell death; human cells have limit to number of times it can divide; telomere-cap on the end of a chromosome that diminishes with each division
What is a telomere cap on the end of a chromosome that diminishes with each division
What define clinical death brain death is lack of cerebral activity, reflexes, heartbeat, and respiration for 30 minutes to 24 hours
_____ is/are generally accepted as secondary sex characteristics The enlargement of breasts
Gonads begin to develop when 5 to 6 weeks after fertilization
The SRY gene codes for what the Y chromosome
__________ stimulates the descent of the testes into the scrotum testoterone
By volume most of the semen is produced where in the seminal vesicles
The penile urethra is enclosed by what the corpus spongiosum
The _____ is/are the site(s) of sperm maturation and storage Epididymides
When do the testes of the fetus start secreting testosterone In the first trimester of fetal development
The ________ has/have no androgen receptors and do not respond to it Germ cells
Changes called male climacteric are a consequence of increased what FSH and LH
In the process of spermiogensis ________ become ___________ Spermatids ; spermatozoa
At what stage does a developing sperm cell begin to grow a tail Spermatids
Male infertility (sterility) is the inability of sperm to do what to fertilize an egg
A sperm count lower than what 20-25 million is usually (associated with infertility)
Sperm make up what percentage of semen volume just 10% of semen volume.
The site of attachment of the embryo in the uterus is endometrium
Most of the natural lubrication during female sexual excitement is provided by what glands the greater vestibular gland
Follicles are located where in the cortex of the ovary
________ acts primarily in the uterus Progesterone
The appearance of pubic and axillary hair is a stage specifically called what stage pubarche
Most ovulation home test kits measure __________ surge which happens about 24 hours before ovulation LH
Lutein cells develop from what the theca interna
During the plateau phase, the glans and clitoris swell as the _______ arteries dilate and the corpus or corpora __________ engorge with blood Deep; cavernosa
The most abundant estrogen of pregnancy is ____________ but one that accounts for most of the estrogenic effects in pregnancy is _______________ Estriol; estradiol
Which is the longest stage of labor The infant’s only natural source of nutrition suring the first 2-3 days postpartum is colostrum
True/False. The uterus is a thick muscular organ that sits inferior to urinary bladder False
True/False. Progesterone stimulated uterine contractions False
The process that makes it possible for the sperm to penetrate the egg is called what capacitation
Which event happens first The acrosomal reaction
The spherodial stage of early prenantal development with about 16 to 64 cells is called a/an murola
Primary germ layers are formed during gastrulation
Mesenchyme gives rise towhat muscle bone and blood
Out of the 300 million ejaculated sperm, only about ____________ reach the vicinity of the egg 3000
All are derivatives of ectoderm except the dermis
The first body cavity is called the what coelom
The ___________ completely closes the embryo and provides a stable environment for it. Amnion
Oxygenated blood reaches the fetus through the what umbilical vein
The first 6 weeks of postpartum life constitute the what neonatal period
The fossa ovalis is a remnant of the _____________ of the fetus Foramen ovale
Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) is caused by what deficiency in surfactant
Down syndrome (trisomy-21) results from what nondisjunction
True/False. Teratogens usually do not cause congential anomalies False
Created by: Mathematics1