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English 1 EOC Terms

A word element--usually a prefix or suffix--that can be attached to a base, stem, or root word to form a new word affixes
repetition of initial consonant sounds at the beginning of words (Ex: Sad sue sobbed.) alliteration
a reference to a well-known person, place, or event from history, literature, or religion with which a reader is likely to be familiar allusion
to separate a whole into its parts; to examine and break down into parts analyze
the person or force that creates conflict for the main character (protagonist) in a literary work antagonist
two or more words that have opposite meanings antonym
a short speech delivered by an actor in a play which expresses the actor’s thoughts and is generally directed to the audience and not heard and ignored by other actors on stage aside
this is whoever will be reading or listening to a piece of literature/speech/play/essay/etc. audience
a personal and largely unreasoned judgment either for or against a particular person, position, or thing; a prejudice; bias can be favorable or unfavorable bias/author’s bias
a person (imaginary or created using an animal or other object that is given human-qualities) represented in a work of fiction (short story, novel, play, film) character
the combination of ways that an author shows readers what a person (character) in a literary selection is like characterization
the author comes right out and tells the reader about a character’s personality and/or traits direct characterization
the author gives behaviors and clues and requires that the reader figure out the character’s personality, traits, and habits from this information indirect characterization
when an author is clear in his or her writing, word use, organization, and expression of thoughts clarity
the moment of highest emotional intensity in a story; the major turning point (change) of the story climax
A sentence that contains at least one independent clause and one dependent clause complex sentence
a sentence that contains at least two independent clauses (Ex: The problem was difficult, but I finally found the answer.) – (An independent clause is a sentence that can stand on its own without any additional help.) compound sentence
a sentence consisting of at least two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses; (Ex: Queen Elizabeth was called a redhead, but no one knew her hair color for sure because she always wore a wig. compound-complex sentence
the main problem in a literary work conflict
the emotional meanings and associations that a word carries separate from its dictionary definition (Ex: sick) connotation
the hints provided in a text which lead the reader to the meanings of familiar and unfamiliar words; These clues can be found before, within, or after the sentence with the unfamiliar word. context clues
the dictionary definition of a word; the literal meaning of a word denotation
this is the form of language that is characteristic of a particular place or group of people (Ex: New York/New Jersey accent, country accent, British accent, etc.) dialect
the contrast/difference between what a character thinks to be true and what a reader knows to be true; Readers sometimes know more than one character knows, and they must wait to find out how the character reacts; Think horror movies dramatic irony
this is a person/character who changes during the plot/actions of a story; he/she changes dynamic character
a short, multiple-paragraph, nonfiction work about a particular subject essay
the substitution of an agreeable or non-offensive phrase for one that might be offensive or unpleasant (Ex: instead of “died” people use “passed away” or “went on to glory”/instead of “fat” people use “big-boned”) euphemism
the beginning of a story where the reader is introduced to the characters, setting, and basic conflict exposition
A comparison between two unlike things that continues throughout a series of sentences in a paragraph or lines in a poem extended metaphor
a problem that a character has with something outside of himself – man vs. man, man vs. nature, man vs. society, man vs. fate/supernatural external conflict
the sequence of events that follow the climax and end in and go to the resolution of a story falling action
writing that tells about imaginary characters and events; not real fiction
language devices that go beyond literal meaning and have an emotional or sensory effect on the reader figurative language
the narrator participates in the action of the story and uses First Person pronouns “I, me, my” First Person point of view
a shift in a story to an earlier event that interrupts the normal time-line/chronological development of a story; a memory that is out of place in a story flashback
a character that has only one trait and is one-dimensional like a stereotype (Ex: nagging wife, criminal skate-boarders, lazy surfers, bad women drivers, etc.) flat character
hints and clues that tip the reader off as to what is to come later in a story or literary work foreshadowing
the category or type of literature (short story, novel, play, poetry, essay, folktale, fiction, nonfiction) genre
words that sound the same but are spelled in different ways (Ex: blue/blew, to/too, close/clothes) homonym
extreme exaggeration used in a literary work (Ex: I could eat a horse. You’re always doing that. Your dog is so ugly that he only has cat friends.) hyperbole
a phrase in common use that cannot be understood by literal or ordinary meanings (Ex: a chip on your shoulder, a blessing in disguise, a dime a dozen) idiom
the use of language that appeals to the five senses – touch, taste, smell, sight, and hearing (sound) imagery
to come to a conclusion using the facts or context; to figure out what is being implied, hidden, or subtly stated by reading between the lines (Ex: Two women dressed in fur – one is wealthy, but one is homeless) infer/inference
a problem that a character has within him or herself; man vs. self (Ex: Girl does or doesn’t eat cake) internal conflict
the contrast/difference between what is expected and what actually happens (appearance vs. reality) irony
an account of the personal experiences of an author memoir
a direct comparison of two unlike things without using the words “like” or “as”; Ex: You are a rose. metaphor
Stands for Modern Language Association; this is the form used to write and organize research papers and identify the sources (books, articles, websites, interviews, video, etc.) used to give credibility to the author’s (your) opinion/writing M.L.A.
the feeling or atmosphere that an author creates in a piece of literature; the feeling the author wants the reader to have mood
a traditional story/tale about gods, goddesses, supernatural heroes, ancestors, and other characters myth
writing that is true non-fiction
a word whose sound indicates its meaning; Ex: “Moo,” “Oink,” “Meow,” “Bang-Bang,” etc.) onomatopoeia
the use of two words in a phrase that are exact opposites of one another; a contradiction; a phrase that seemingly cannot be; Ex: cowboy, pretty ugly, a fine mess, a little big, etc.) oxymoron
a statement or idea which seems absurd and contradicting itself but expresses a truth; Ex: I know that I know nothing. I always lie. paradox
a type of figurative language where human qualities are given to non-human things (Ex: The desk cried.) personification
the sequence of events/actions in a story plot
the perspective from which a story is told; There are three primary types. point of view
the narrator of a story knows all about the thoughts and feelings of EVERY character in the plot; “all-knowing” Omniscient Point of View
the narrator of a story is outside the action of the story and knows the thoughts and feelings of only ONE character (not the other characters) Third Person Limited
to declare or say in advance; to make an educated/reasonable guess as to what will happen later in piece of literature predict
A letter or group of letters attached to the beginning of a word that partly indicates its meaning; Ex: un- in untied prefix
an original, fundamental, and authoritative document pertaining to an event, topic, or subject; original material primary source
a form of communication that is aimed at influencing the attitude of a community toward some cause or position; Ex: Hitler used propaganda to cause Germans to hate the Jews. propaganda
the main character in a literary work or piece of fiction protagonist
A play on words, sometimes on different senses of the same word and sometimes on the similar sense or sound of different words pun
also called “author’s purpose;” the reason behind a piece of literature; the aim or goal of an author with a piece of literature; Ex: to inform, to entertain, to persuade, etc. purpose
also called the French word “Denouement” (pronounced day-new-moi) which means “untying of the knots”; this is the final part in a story in which the conflict is concluded and all the loose ends are tied up resolution
an organized and systematic way of writing about a particular topic and finding answers to questions research
the part of the plot where the conflict and events build to the climax rising action
the form of a word after all affixes are removed; this is the base word; the core of a word root word
a character in a story who is fully developed and has a wide range of emotions; a believable character round character
Standard American English; English language that is used in professional writing in the United States and taught in American schools; proper English S.A.E.
writing that uses humor to ridicule or criticize individuals, ideas, groups, or institutions in the hope of improving them satire
research information is one that was created later by someone who did not experience first-hand or participate in the events or conditions of the topic being researched secondary source
a comparison of two unlike things using “like” or “as” simile
a sentence with one independent clause; a sentence that can stand by itself simple sentence
the contrast/difference between what happens and what was expected; usually humorous, such as when a prank backfires on the prankster; Ex: Spraying whipped cream in your own face while trying to get a friend. situational irony
a long speech expressing the thoughts of a character who is alone on stage soliloquy
a character who does not change in a story; stays the same static character
the way an author writes, as opposed to what the author writes about (though the two things are definitely linked). It results from word choice, tone, and syntax. It's the voice readers "hear" when they read a work. style
A letter or group of letters added to the end of a word or root, serving to form a new word and change the meaning; Ex: -ish in childish suffix
when an object or idea represents something other than itself (Ex: a flag means U.S.A., rose means love) symbol/symbolism
the main idea, life lesson, or universal truth of a piece of literature theme theme
the author’s attitude toward a subject, character, or audience; this can be stated or implied tone tone
the contrast between what is said and what is meant; most sarcastic comments are verbally ironic; Ex: “Yeah, I love you.” “Nice job, Einstein.” when neither of these is meant as a compliment verbal irony
the distinctive style or manner of expression of an author or of a character in a book; this includes word choice and vocabulary usage; the author’s voice voice
the effective use of the words to enhance style, tone, or clarity in writing or speaking word choice
Created by: esthernow03