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Quiz 9


Which term best describes an accumulation of angular rock fragments at the base of a steep, bedrock slope or cliff? talus slope
________ denotes the exposed, crescent-shaped rupture surface at the head of a slump. Scarp
Consider a weathered rock or soil particle lying on a slope. How will the gravitational force pulling the particle downward along the land surface vary with the inclination of the slope? It will decrease as the slope angle is lessened
How do the strength and cohesion of clay-rich regolith or soil change with the addition of water? Water lowers the strength and cohesion
________ involves movement on a zone of compressed air. A rock avalanche
Of the following, which one would most likely be triggered by an earthquake? rock avalanche
Which one of the following operates primarily in areas of permafrost? solifluction
Which statement best describes slumping, a mass wasting process? a block or blocks of unconsolidated regolith slide downhill along a curved slip surface
Which mass wasting process has the slowest rate of movement? creep
All of the following are factors affecting mass wasting except for ________. geologic age
The most rapid type of mass movement is a ________. rock avalanche
As an erosional process, how is mass wasting unique from wind, water, and ice? Mass wasting does not require a transporting medium
Which of the following mass movements is most likely to occur in a geologic setting where the rock strata are inclined? rockslide
Which of the following statements concerning mudflows is NOT true? Mudflows deposit talus slopes
How do freezing, thawing, wetting, and drying contribute to soil creep? The soil expands and contracts, lifting particles and dropping them a slight distance downslope.
All of the following are possible indicators that creep is occurring except for ________. an extremely thick soil profile
Slump describes the very slow, downhill movement of soil and regolith False
The steepest, stable, slope angle possible in unconsolidated, granular materials like sand and gravel is called the angle of retention. False
Solifluction occurs during the warmer summer months. True
Repeated freezing and thawing can be important in soil creep movements. True
Lahars are essentially mudflows associated with volcanoes and volcanism. True
Solifluction is an important mass wasting process in areas of permafrost. True
A triggering mechanism, such as heavy rains or an earthquake, are necessary for mass wasting to occur. False
Earthflows and slumps generally involve movement of unconsolidated or weakly consolidated soil and regolith. True
Bedding planes and fractures can both act as slip surfaces for rockslides. True
A scarp is the exposed portion of the rupture surface beneath a slump block. True
The release of water vapor to the atmosphere by plants is called ________. transpiration
Which one of the following statements is correct? Sea level drops when water is stored in expanding ice sheets and continental glaciers.
Which of the following is the correct definition of stream gradient? the drop in elevation of a stream divided by the distance the water travels
A natural, meandering, river channel is modified into a more or less straight and smooth, canal-like channel. Which of the following statements is correct? The natural channel had a lower gradient and higher friction than the straight channel
Which of the following is NOT part of the water cycle? calcium carbonate dissolving in soil water and groundwater
Which of the following must result in a lower base level for rivers and streams? sea level falls; land rises
Which one of the following factors does NOT influence stream velocity? discharge
The world's largest river in terms of discharge is the ________. Amazon
If you were to examine the profile of a typical river, you would probably find that the gradient is ________. steepest near the head
________ make up the suspended loads of most rivers and streams. Silt and clay-sized, detrital grains
At a bend in a river, the main erosion is ________. on the outside of the bend
________ describes the total sediment load transported by a stream. Capacity
At the head of a delta, the major channel splits into smaller channels that follow different paths to the sea. These smaller channels are known as ________. distributaries
A natural levee is ________. 1. an erosional feature 2. a depositional feature 3. essentially parallel to its stream channel both B and C 1.a depositional feature 2.essentially parallel to its stream channel
Created by: tjddn8888