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Biol-2015 Final

Material for the final exam.

Biological anthropologists study human biology within the framework of? Evolution
The steps of the scientific method are performed in what order? Observation, hypothesis, experiment, results, conclusion
A theory is? A well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations
Macroevolution occurs when small changes occur in the genetic structure of a population over time. False
Shortly before the scientific revolution of the 16th and 17th centuries, the Earth was believed to have been created roughly how many years ago? 3,500
The application of binomial nomenclature was put forward by which scholar? Carolus Lennaeus
In the United States, applied anthropology is considered one of the four traditional sub-fields of anthropology. False
Based on molecular (DNA) evidence, apes and monkeys began to diverge approximately? 27 million years ago
Ape diversity was greater during the Miocene epoch that it is today? True
In taxonomy, the tribe level of Hominini (aka Hominins) includes? Only humans and our direct ancestors
Hominin traits developed at different rates and at different times. This process is known as punctuated equilibrium? False
Members of Sivapithecus share similar cranial morphologies with which extant ape? Orangutans
Which of these anatomical characteristics is NOT considered a successful adaptation towards obligate bipedalism? -A convergent big toe -Broad, bowl shaped hips -an s-shaped spine -upper and lower limbs of equal length Upper and lower limbs of equal length
Fluorine analysis is an appropriate dating technique when attempting to determine the relative age of two sets of stone tools from one archeological site? False
Potassium-Argon dating is a useful dating technique with a half-life of roughly? 1.3 billion years
Paleoecological evidence suggests that the first hominins inhabited a (____) environment? Woodland/Forested
What is the name of the oldest pre-Australopith species found to date? -A. afarensis -Ardipithecus ramidus -H. erectus -none of the above none of the above
The east african rift valley runs through three countries that claim the bulk of ancient human fossil discoveries in Africa. These three countries are? Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Kenya
What is the most prominent human-like trait found in the Australopiths? Bipedalism
What is the general time period in which the pre-Australopiths are known to have lived? 7-4.4 million years ago
The robust australopiths (genus Paranthropus) are best defined by their? Robust chewing complex
According to Raymond Dart, Australopithecus africanus was an aggressive species that was associated with the first tool assemblage in human history. He named the assemblage the "osteodontokeratic" culture. True
The Oldowan assemblage is defined by what tool types? Sharp, unmodified flakes and crude choppers.
The Pleistocene epoch occurred roughly 1.8 million-10,000 years ago and is often referred to as the "Ice Age?" True
Based on fossil evidence, which human ancestor is believed to have been the first to leave Africa? H. erectus
The discovery of Dikika child allowed researchers to conclude that (____) physically matured at a rate closer to, but not quite as fast as, modern chimpanzees. A. aferensis
According to "Human Origins" video, what cultural artifact led researchers to believe that Sima de los Huesos represents the first intentional burial of the dead? A pink, quartz hand axe.
"Turkana Boy," the most complete H. erectus find to date, is remarkable in that? The child's projected adult height was over six feet.
Due primarily to variations in cranial morphologies (including cranial capacity) proponents of H. rudolfensis believe it is a distinct species, separate from contemporaneous H. Habilis. True
Zhoukoudian was originally thought to be: -An ancient ape cave shelter, located in Southeast Asia. -An ancient Neandertal cave shelter, in China, with evidence of cannibalism. -An ancient, open air, Australopithecus buthering site in China -None of the Above Answer: None of the Above
Pre-modern humans greatly expanded their predecessor's geographic range into Europe
Which species is believed to have been the first to use modified stone tools to process animal remains? H. Habilis
Given the genetic evidence presented in class and using the biological species concept as a guide, which taxonomic classification for the Neandertals is appropriate? H. sapiens neanderthalensis
Fossils of H. habilis are typified by: Long, ape-like upper limbs
Based on ante-mortem trauma observed in Neandertal remains, paleoanthropologists believe BOTH males and females lived in a rought, physically traumatic lifestyle, associated with the routine hunting of ancient mega-fauna. True or False? True
Based on current fossil analysis it is widely believed that Neandertals and modern humans shared a last common ancestor known as H. heidelbergensis
Oddely, the genus Australopithecus lacks the post-orbital constriction that is found in the genus Paranthropus. True or False? False
Which Neandertal physical trait arose as an adaptation to living in a cold enviroment? A wide nasal aperture
Based on ONLY fossil evidence, which group of hominins may have been the first to utilize some form of complex communication? H. habilis
The Mousterian tool assemblage is associated with what state of production? The middle Paleolithic
According to the Multiregional model, modern humans: -Remained in Africa until modern humans from Asia replaced them -Arose in Africa, but interbred heavily with pre-modern populations in Europe and Asia -Evolved in Europe and then were displaced by European Neanderthals -None of the above *D - None*
Modern humans are characterized by a unique trait known as an occipital bun. True or False? False
The oldest documented hominin footprints were found in ____ and date to ____. Laetoli, Tanzania; 3.6 million years ago
The concept of discrete sexual selection is an accepted hypothesis that was discussed as an adaptation that favors bipedal locomotion. True or False? False
The fossl known as "Shanidar 1" provides strong circumstantial evidence that ___ provided group care to those in need. Neandertals
___ discovered the first H. errectus fossil on Java in 1891. Eugene Dubois
The Homo erectus fossils found in ___ have especially thick cranial bones and large brow ridges. Asia
___ appear to have been the first to populate Australia, approximately ___ years ago. Modern humans; 55,000
As discussed in class, the evidence that suggests that Neandertals created the first musical instrument (bear bone flute) is not convincing in the face of repeated carnivore taphonomy studies. True or False? False
Members of genes of Homo are characterized by ___. Stone tool production; a marked increase in cranial capacity; further refinement of adaptations for efficient bipedal locomotion.
Olduvai Gorge, locatedin Tanzania, is an area of intense anthropological study due to its well stratified, easily accessible sedmiments that date back to approximately two million years ago. True or False? True
Prior to Darwin's ground breaking workin the mid-late 1800's,most researchers believed that the geographic origin of modern humans was located somewhere in ___. Europe and Asia
Physically speaking, when compared to modern humans, early hominins (pre-australopiths and the australopiths). Have an ape-like appearance above the neck and a human-like appearance below the neck.
The site of Ngandong, Java is significant because it dates to ___ and contains ___ remains. 27,000 years ago; H. erectus
Sahelanthropus tchadensis was a significant fossil discovery because it is not only the oldest potential hominin but it is also the first to be found in South Africa. True or False? False
Pre-modern humans in China appear to have descended directly from H. heidelbergensis groups from Africa. True or False? False
Although not the oldest remains to date, the inital discovery of anicent modern humans was located in which country? France
Most primates tend to avoid confrontation over territorial rights, preferring to passively defend core areas. Given this, intergroup aggression is always a result of chance meetings between conspecifics. True or False? False
The rules of classification stem from the field of ___. Taxonomy
Fossilized specimens classified as members of the superfamily Omomyoidea bear strong physical similarities to which extant (living) group of primates? Tarsliformes
___ are structural similarities among species that are based on common function and not on common evolutionary descent. Analogies
The first mammals appear in the fossil record Approximately 225 m.y.a.
Monotremes produce ___. Eggs, which develop separately from the mother after being deposited.
The evolutionary systematics approach makes no attempt to discern ancestor-descendant relationships when classifying groups of organisms. True or False? False
In the film "Clever Monkeys," the red colobus monkeys used charcoal to aid in digestion. What other adaptations allow them to subsist on toxic, potentially fatal plants? - A sacculated stomach. - Special enzymes and unusually high amounts of acid in their stomachs.
A specific enviromental setting to which a species is uniquely adapted to is known as a/an Ecological niche
The ___ mode of speciation is typified by complete reproductive isolation, typically stemming from development of a geographic barrier. Allopatric
Aside from humans, ___ appear to be the only members of the superfamily Hominoidea that form monogamous social groups. Gibbons and siamangs
You are observing a group of savanna baboons in Africa. One day, you observe an aggressive male mount another male in the group after a tense stand off over a desirable female. What type of behavior have you just witnessed? Ritualized
Ectothermic organisms utilize external stimuli to maintain a constant internal body temperature. True or False? True
Organisms with heterodont dentition cannot easily process foods before swallowing due to identically shaped teeth throughout the dental arcade. True or False? False
This trait is used to define the order of Primates. Generalized diet and dentition
Although primates have longer than average life expectancies when compared to other mammals of similiar proportions (size, weight), they rely heavily on instinctual behavior for survival. True or False? Flase
___ are structural similiarities shared by species that are acquired by descent from a common ancestor. Homologies
According to the arboreal hypothesis, primate characteristics evolved as adaptive advantages for hunting small insects and other prey. True or False? False
According to our discussions on models for human behavior, ___. Some nonhuman primates appear to give specific alarm calls that refer to particular categories of predators.
The subfamily Hominiae ___. Separates humans, chimps and bonobos from all other apes.
This is NOT classified as anthropoids. Tarsiers
Sympatric speciation is defined as a rapid expansion and diversification of numerous groups of organisms into newly available ecological niches. True or False? False
Aye-ayes are one of the more sociable diurnal lemurs, living in large multi-male, multi-female groups. True or False? False
___ are found only in Africa and are characterized as solitary nocturnal insectivores that are experts at predator avoidance through quick darting movements. Galagos
In primates, the presence of a bony plate at the back of the eye orbit is found in which taxonomic group? Infraorder Anthropoidea
In some Old World monkeys and several ape species, the hormonally initiated peiod of secial receptivity is known as estrus and can ONLY be detected by the release of specific pheromones. True or False? False
The ___ has been termed the "Age of Mammals" by some researches. Cenozolc
Evolutionary ecology is the study of evolution behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection. True or False? False
Early primate behavioral studies focues on Terrestrial primates
Structural similarities shared by a wide array of distantly related species that are inherited from a common ancestor, such as the number of bones in the forelimb, are termed adaptive radiations. True or False? False
Male chimpanzees are philopatric, meaning that they ___. Remain in one's natal group as an adult.
Dispersal patterns among primates are one of the few observed traits that do not appear to affect social structure. True or False? False
The theory that species persist unchanged for long periods and then undergo rapid evolutionary change is known as ___. A - Gradualism B - Homoplasy C - Parallel evolution D - Microevolution E - None of the Above E - None of the above
In the film "Clever Monkeys," the subsistence practice practice (nut-cracking) observed by the bearded capuchins can be considered a form of ___. Learned behavior
In many primate species, autogrooming is an affiliative behavior that plays an essential role in relieving group tension and reinforcing social bonds. True or False? False
The reproductive strategy of particular species can be said to be K-selected and is ___ when compared to the strategies of other organisms. Relative
The basic primate social unit ___. Is the mother and infant
Male ___ assume most of the responsibility for infant care (except for nursing). A - Gelada baboons B - Tarsiers C - Owl monkeys D - Indris E - None of the above D - None of the above
___ is/are seen in Old World monkeys but not in any New World monkeys. Ischial callosities
Allometry must be used when carefully controlled cross-species generalizations regarding animals of identical sizes/proportions are made. True or False? False
The social brain hypothesis proposes that primate brains increased in relative size and complexity due to the ___. Demands of living in politically complex, often large groups.
Human language Uses arbitrary symbols
This is NOT part of the Criteria for Cultural Acts in Other Species. Inheritance
Physical anthropologists are interested in nonhuman primate tool use because it demonstrates that chimpanzees are on their way to becoming more human. True or False? False
Sympatric species are ___. Groups whose territories overlap
All catarrhines have which dental formula? 2123
During which epochs did the first true primates (~55.8 m.y.a.) appear? Eocene
Proponents of the ___ species concept tend to be either lumpers or splitters when it comes to classifying questionable specimens. A - Recognition B - Ecological C - Biological D - None of the above *NONE OF THE ABOVE*
Geographic variation in the types and methods in which tools are used in chimpanzees is evidence of ___. Cultural behavior
What is NOT a goal of anthropology? The study and classification of human personalities?
In the United States, applied anthropology is considered one of the four traditional sub-fields of anthropology. True or False? False
Who was the first to denouce the notion of "Grand Design"? Georges-Louis Leclerc
Thomas Malthus introduced the concept of ___ as a result of Earth's limited resources. Competition
According to Darwin, species change occurs so quickly that is not easily observed by the human eye. True or False? False
Somatic cells ___ A - Are also called haploid cells B - Trasmit genetic information from parent to offspring C - Contain half the amount of DNA sex cells D - None of the above D - None of the above
A nucleotide consists of ___. A sugar, a phosphate unit and a base (either A, G, C, or T)
RNA differs from DNA because it utilizes the base known as uracil instead of thymine. True or False? True
The genetic code of all organisms are discontinuous by nature, periodically coming to a stop gap which lacks any genetic code and then restarts, to allow for accurate messages to be transcribed. True or False? False
DNA replication occurs ___. During both mitosis and meiosis
Protein synthesis starts in the nucleus with the ___ of the appropriate section of DNA. Transcription
What are genes? Segments of DNA that code for an amino acid chain.
How many chromosomes are found in a diploid cell? 46
How many autosomes are found in a haploid cell? 22
Regulatory genes are responsible for turning other genes on and off. True or False? True
Mitosis ___. Replaces cells during normal growth and development
tRNA ___. Delivers the appropriate amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
Which is an example of a mutation at the molecular level? Deletion, Insertion, Frameshift
What can be found at a genetic locus? Alternate forms of a gene
Symptoms of PKU occur as a result of ___. An accumulation of specific amino acid in the body AND a pleiotropic gene.
A person who is homozygous dominant for a trait has ___. Two copies of the dominant allele.
An individual's entire genetic make-up is called the phenotype. True or False? False
The approximate distance between different genes on a chromosome can be described in terms of ___. Linkage
Mendelian rules of inheritance ___. - Are used in pedigree analysis - Apply only to simple traits - Were not recognized as significant until the early 20th century
Albinism is a condition that demonstrates an ___ inheritance pattern. Autosomal recessive
Physical expression of polygenic traits can often be influenced by ___. - Additive effects - Culture -Enviroment
The MN blood group consists of ___ allels. 2
Mendelian traits ___. A - Are polygenic B - Are influenced by multiple genetic loci C - Have continuous variation D - All of the above E - None of the above E - None of the above
Pleiotropy manifests as the singular physical expression of many genes. True or False? False
If 6 out of 10 individuals that share a particular genetic trait actually express said trait the ___. Penetrance of that trait would be 60%.
Additive effects are accountable for part of the variation seen in the expression of simple traits. True or False? False
Which force of evolution can result in the chance flucuations of allele frequencies over time becoming fixed or lost in a population? Genetic draft
The definition of evolution, as outlined by the MODERN SYNTHESIS, can be described as ___. A two-stage process that includes production and redistribution of variation (mutation) that is then acted upon by natural selection.
The unusually high frequency of ___ in areas with high frequencies of malaria bearing mosquitoes has been attributed to the process of ___. Sickle-cell anemia; natural selection
Identical twins have not only the same genotype, but always express the same exact phenotypes as well. True or False? False
According to the principals of Mendelian inheritance ___. Alleles maintain their indentity in succeeding generations, even if not expressed.
A genetic bottleneck typically ___. Decreases genetic variety.
The increased genetic variability through recombination is a distinct advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction. True or False? True
Positive assortative mating can result in ___. An increase in homozygous genotypes.
Disruptive selection occurs when ___. Natural selection favors homozygous pairings.
On a population level, humans tend to mate randomly. True or False? False
This is NOT inherited in Mendelian fashion. Skin pigmentation
Created by: dsh0819