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Chem-Module 13

When a reaction is exothermic, energy will be thought of as a _______ in the reaction. Product
When a reaction is endothermic, energy will be thought of as a ________. Reactant
Potential energy= Energy stored in chemical bonds of a substance
Kinetic energy= Energy that is released or absorbed
Change in Enthalpy (⌂H) The energy change that accompanies a chemical reaction
1 calorie= 4.184 Joules
⌂H is _______ for endothermic reactions Positive
⌂H is _______ for exothermic reactions Negative
⌂H= Energy required to break bonds - Energy released when bonds form
Hess's Law Enthalpy is state function and is therefore independent of path.
State function Any quantity that depends solely on the final destination, not the way you get to that destination.
Enthalpy of formation (⌂Hf) The ⌂H of a formation reaction
Standard conditions 25 C, 1.00 atm
⌂H^0= Σ⌂Hf^0 (products) - Σ⌂Hf^0 (reactants)
The standard enthalpy of formation of an element in its elemental form is _____ zero
Hess's Law is more accurate because it also takes into account the phase of the substance involved
Activation energy The energy necessary to start a chemical reaction
Entropy A measure of the disorder that exists in any system
The Second Law of Thermodynamics The entropy of the universe must always either increase or remain the same. It can never decrease
The ______ state has the least amount of entropy associated with it. solid
The entropy of the ______ state is higher than the solid state. liquid
The entropy of the ______ state is the highest of all gaseous
The entropy of a system ______ with increasing temperature increases
The entropy of a system _____ as the matter it contains increases increases
⌂Suniverse ≥0
⌂S^0= ΣS^0 (products) - ΣS^0 (reactants)
All substances, even elements, have an _______ _______ absolute entropy
⌂G= ⌂H - T × ⌂S
When ⌂G < 0, then reaction is _________ with the Second Law and is thus _________ consistent, spontaneous
⌂G > 0, then the reaction ______ proceed, because it ______ the Second Law cannot, violates
If the reaction is ______ and ⌂S is ______, then reaction will never occur. endothermic, negative
If the reaction is _____ and ⌂S is _____, the reaction will always be spontaneous. exothermic, positive
⌂G^0= Σ⌂Gf^0 (products) - Σ⌂Gf^0 (reactants)
Created by: akikoandpoog